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20 Prevention of Marine Pollution

by Ayu Mesdya

Prevention, what is the meaning of prevention ? Do you know ? Let’s we will tell you about “Prevention”. Refer from Cambridge Dictionary, prevention’s means better than cure. It means that the prevention is better to stop something bad from happening than it is to deal with it after it has happened. So, if  now we should talk about prevention of marine pollution it means how to prevent that marine pollution over all our deep ocean, open ocean, reefs until our coastals areas. Here, we will tell you about 20 prevention of marine pollution that should we must know about.

1. Plastic pollution

Modern live, population are increasingly so do the plastic waste is increasing too. Plastic is versatile, lightweight, flexible, moisture resistant, strong and relatively inexpensive.  However, the plastic material are used in the production of so many products all. That’s why consumption of plastics have continued to a rise. A simply walk on any beach, anywhere and the plastic waste always present.

Moreover, tons of plastic waste that can vary in size from large contain fishing nets to microscopic plastic pellets is discarded every year, everywhere, polluting lands, rivers, coast, beach and oceans. It’s large scale problem and it needs a global response prevention that we should do collected  the plastic waste separately, improve recycling, cut marine litter and remove potentially dangerous chemicals.

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2. Chemical Spills

Chemical can be an important part of manufacturing, but they could also create dangerous situations if accidently released. Each year, there are thousands of chemical spills in coastal waters. The release of chemical into our coastal is big problem it’s kill the wildlife, destroy habitat and contaminate critical resources in the food chain. But there are a way that could help to prevent or minimize the chemical spills. Place the chemical containers being used in a hood or lab bench area that reduces the possibility. Keep all unused in their appropriate storage area and keep the work area clean of needles equipment and clutter.

3. Oil Spills

The marine transportation sector is a prime place for a large oil spills. There is a significant increase over the last few years. Crude oil is a nasty material, very destructive when it spills into the environment and when it contact the human or animals. It’s not even useful for energy, until it’s chemically processed it could be a suitable products like gasoline, heating oil, natural gas liquids and others. Everyday we use products that rely in oil. Whether we fill our vehicles with fuel, we support the exploration for, drilling of and transportation of oil around over our planet.

On the other hand, oil spills still happen while all safety procedures and equipment protect the environment. Now, we must take an action to help prevent oil spills and it’s started from our lifestyle. Reduce using fossil fuel, putting renewable energy with solar, geothermal or wind, purchase green electricity and join and organization fighting for more renewable energy.

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4. Corrosion on Ship

Copper, steel  are also known as a  metal. They are moderately soluble in water and binds easily to sediments and organic matter. But metal also can be surprisingly fragile especially when it times to corrosion.  Corrosion happens when the metal are exposed to the air. Not only in home or office building we could find the corrosion but it happens too on ships. Those are 5 types of ship corrosion; Galvanic Corrosion is the common form of corrosion and therefore the most dangerous. Second is Stress Corrosion Cracking that the stainless steel develops microscopic cracks and forcing the object in opposite directions.

Crevice Corrosion involves the interaction of one metal part with two connected environments such as a tight, confined space, where elements like oxygen are limited. Inter-granular Corrosion is corrosion caused by fractures along the metal surface. Last, Flow Accelerated Corrosion this type ship corrosion occurs from the constant flow of water against a metal surface which can be particularly harmful breakdown a vessels protected layers. The strategies of prevention that we could do in corrosion was improved coatings, controls and or performance standards for protective coatings.

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5. Mercury Pollution

Mercury is use primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. Mercury is also use to produce chlorine gas, batteries, dentall fillings and medical devises. 30 % of mercury in the atmosphere comes from natural sources such as a volcanoes or forest fires. But 70 % the mercury is a result of human activities such as Crude oils, mining of mercury ores until using mercury in products and manufacturing.

When mercury deposited in lakes or waterways, bacteria convert it to methyl mercury. Methyl mercury accumulates in algae and is eaten by small fish, which is in turn are eaten by larger fish. Unfortunately, the mercury in fish also concentrates in the tissue of many human or wildlife eating the fish. If contaminated fish are eaten it can become serious health threat to human.

On the other hand, to prevent mercury pollution each of us must do our part to keep mercury out of the environment. Make sure to buy mercury free products then recycling the items of mercury properly, that can minimize overall releases of mercury to the environment from human activities.

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6. Air Pollution

Air pollution, everyone know that air pollution is  harmful to health. Not even in human but animals life should be threat by air pollution. Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. It occurs when the air contains harmful amount of gases,dust, fumes and odors. Air pollution in ocean is most caused by shipping industry. The impact of this not only on public health but also global climate changes.

Currently international shipping and port industry now has adopted new technologies to reduce the air pollution from ship and other transport modes. The technology strategies are replacing or upgrading older engines propulsion systems and use of low sulfur fuels.

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7. Noise Pollution

Noise emanating from passing ships may disturb some animals like whales and dolphins. It is assumed that hearing is the most sensitive organ and that effects are mediated through hearing. The impact of noise pollution could make injury, hearing loss until disturb the behavior audibility. This endless barrage of ocean noise even killing sea creatures. Using a new tech like quite ships that can stopping the noise pollution.

8. Detergent waste

Everyday , when we want to washing cloth or something we need detergent to help clean the dirt. But chemical in detergent could be harmful for human also marine life. When the detergent waste was covering into the water, fishes eat that chemical and entering in its body. Then human catch that fish and contaminated the chemical of detergent and we eat it. It could make harmful for human health. So, to prevent this waste we could using environmentally friendly detergents. It can help to reduce the water pollution.

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9. Sewage

With billions of people in the planet, disposing of sewage waste is a major problem. According to World Health Organization some 663 million people don’t have access to safe drinking water, while 2,4 billion of the worlds population don’t have proper sanitation (hygienic toilet facilities). Relatively little progress has been made on 9mproving global sanitation in the last decade. Sewage disposal could kill as many in million people and should be broken down harmlessly in the environment.

Furthermore, Sewage contains all kinds of chemicals from the pharmaceutical drugs people take to the paper, plastic and other wastes they flush down their toilets. Ways to reduce sewage pollution are build bay-friendly sewage systems, avoid planting trees and shrubs near household sewer line and don’t put grease down the drain.

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10. Nutrients

Nutrients that could be a pollution too for example chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers used by a farmers also add nutrients to the soil , which drain into rivers and seas. Fertilizers can cause a massive increase in the growth of algae or plankton. Reducing this pollution we could change the chemical fertilizer into organic fertilizer that make our environments friendly.

11. Waste Water

Waste water is contain chemical washed down drains and discharged from factories. Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by waste water. Like other water pollution it contain many of dangerous chemical and could make harmful of the marine life. Reduce of this waste water is also same like other water pollution.

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12. Alien Species

Pollution can be biological as well as chemical in some parts of the world alien species are a major of a problem. Alien species sometimes known as invasive species are animals or plants from one region that have been introduced into a different ecosystem where they do not belong.

Common examples of alien species include zebra mussels in the Great Lakes of the USA which were carried there from Europe by ballast water and example like in the Black Sea an alien jelly fish called Mnemiopsis leidyi reduced fish stocks by 90 percent after arriving in ballast water. To stop invasive species or alien species example plants, we noticed that do not grow the plants because it can destroying animal habitat and food resources.

13. Hard Rock Mining

The hard rock mining industry is the single largest source of toxic waste and one of the most  destructive industries in the country. 40 percent of the watersheds in the western United States are contaminated by pollution from hard rock mines. Toxic spills and acid mine drainage kill fish and wildlife , poison community drinking waters until serious of health risks. Solution to the problems of hard rock mining is stop mines. It works to reduce the pollution.

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14. Herbicides Pollution

Herbicides is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants.Herbicide are widely used in agriculture and in landscape turf management. Herbicide could wash away through irrigation,rain and groundwater movement.When herbicides come into the water, it also affects wildlife, birds drink the polluted water and feed  on affected plants. The alternative to prevent this solution is choose organic herbicides it create much less damage to surrounding plant and animal life.

15. Pesticides Pollution

Pesticides are materials used to control pest such as insects,rodents,weeds,molds and germs. Pesticides come in various forms, including sprays, liquids,powders,granules, baits and floggers. When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs these pesticides can cause mutations as well as disease which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.

Not even the human, marine life is threaten too with the food web. We could follow these recommendation to reduce pesticide pollution; consider non-chemical methods for controlling pests, select the product that best fits your needs and store and dispose-of pesticides properly.

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16. Sedimentation

Sediments (fine-grained powders) is another type of pollution that flow from rivers into the sea. Built a dams or water reservoirs can reduce the sediment flow. This reduced the formation beach, increases coastal erosion and reduce the flow of nutrients from rivers into seas. Increased sediments can also present a problem like it to become muddy or silted and can block the gills of fish. Ways to reduce sedimentation like erosion we should plants trees or mangroves around the coastal areas.

17. Thermal Pollution

Heat or thermal pollution from factories and power plants also causes problems in rivers.  By rising the temperature it reduce the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water this also reducing the level of aquatic life that the river can support. Ways to reduce thermal pollution include using less electricity, transferring heat from water to the atmosphere with cooling towers and recycling heated water as cooling water after it is cooled in collecting ponds.

18. Lights pollution

It refers to International Dark-Sky Association light pollution is an increasing problem threatening astronomical facilities, ecologically sensitive habitats, all wildlife, our energy use as well as our human heritage,. In Israel along the Mediterranean the impact of light pollution is changing  the nesting habits of sea turtles. That lightning beaches at night could disrupt their ability to find water and making them visible to predators.

However, it turns out that light pollution in coastal areas is also a problem for mature sea turtles. To protect the turtle it’s great to create a protected corridor for sea turtles but make sure that area isn’t full of light pollution that will discourage turtles from nesting there.

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19. Nuclear  waste

Nuclear waste is the material that nuclear fuel becomes after it is used in reactor. Nuclear energy is released when a nuclear fuel atom snaps into two. The key component of nuclear waste is the leftover smaller atoms, known as fission products. The waste sometimes called used fuel is dangerously radioactive and remains so for thousands of years.  Based from the news Takashi Kawamura chairman of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) told that nearly 777.000 tons of water tainted with tritium a byproduct of the nuclear process that is notoriously difficult to filter out of the water, will be dumped into Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011.

In that year killing more than 15,000 people and also some plants and seas got the damage. To prevent this kind of nuclear disaster from happening again both nuclear industry and government officials worldwide must seriously consider making at least five major changes to the safety systems at nuclear power.

20. Toxic Waste

Toxic is a chemical material capable of causing death or injury to life.  Toxic waste results from  industrial chemical and biological process. Toxins are found in household, office, until marine transport. Examples of common products that routinely become part of toxic waste streams of industrialized count-rues include batteries for electronic devices, pesticides, cell phones and computers.

In ocean, toxic waste usually release by tankers and cruise ships while floats on. This toxic waste mixed with sewage or oil spills and then it could be harmful to every marine biodiversity. To prevent these waste we must do ; never pour any oil or other chemicals into the grounds or drains, recycle all oil and chemicals, and consume less pesticide.

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Finally, those are 20 prevention of Marine pollution that you can do if you want to keep the sustainability of ocean life. Therefore, we can keep the balancing of life between human and nature.

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