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Conservation of Oceans – Management – Efforts

by Tya

Why we need to protect our ocean? People need good and healthy air to breathe, water to drink, food to eat, climate we can live in,  also recreation and all of these things are belong to oceans. Why oceans? Oceans are the largest ecosystems on earth, thus largest life support system. Oceans also can provide us with things mostly need, like new intervention for new medicine which can fight cancer, pain, and some bacterial diseases and has sixth of the animals which has lot protein and safe to consumed. The most important thing what we get from oceans is it can also absorb carbon dioxide from atmosphere to protect climate for become worse.

Some issues such as global warming and high pollution are big problems for all of us. Temperatures get warmer, some species become endangered, lot disasters are coming are the example of effect from global warming. Because our world already “dangered”, some countries in world wide work together for protected our seas from any distractions.

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What we could do to protect our oceans from become worse? Yeah, the answer is with marine conservation. Marine conservation is protection and preservation of ecosystems in seas also oceans with the main focus on human-cause damage to restoring marine ecosystems and maintain species in ocean life. Marine conservation include two main ecosystem which has big impact for the world, and they are coral reefs and mangrove. What they really do to our life so its become important? Why they can make our life better? You can get the answer when you scrolled down this article until end.

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Coral Reefs

Coral reefs is one of the world most colorful things and cover the oceans floor about 1%. Even its just 1%, coral reefs has big impact for the oceans, and of course to the world. First thing you have to know, if coral isn’t plant like it looks like. Coral reefs is one animal which still has relatives with jelly fish and anemones.

Reefs which belong to the coral has lot benefits to ocean life, such as location to hide or protect small fish from any predator before they can dive deeper. Of course reefs has bigger benefit for own coral too, which are for finding food, mates, shelter, and place to reproduce.

Coral reefs not only has big impact for oceans life, but also has lot benefits for humans life. Coral reefs can be used for heal some diseases, like: cancer, bacterial infections, viruses, heart diseases, arthritis, Alzheimer-diseases, and another diseases. Coral reefs also can help to improve our water quality because they act as filter who can trap things floating in the water, and of course will make water cleaner. Another fact about coral reefs is they need sunlight to grow up faster, that’s why we wont see any corals which deeper than 45 feet. Coral reefs easy to found in any tropical areas too because they like clear and warm water.

Another important benefit we get from coral reefs is it can reduce carbon monoxide levels so its a great weapon to fight the worlds pollution. Coral reefs also can act as natural protective barrier to fight storm waves so the waves wont hit any species or human in full force so it wont terrible disaster at the moments. Some of coral reefs already exist since 50 million years ago. Very old, right?

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Unfortunately, people now a days are doing over exploitation to coral reefs. Pollution, global warming, over fishing are another factors which make many coral reefs broken, and worse fact is they become endangered. Why global warming give bad effects to coral reefs? As we know, we wont get any benefits from global warming. High water temperatures causes coral reefs lose their microscopic algae that produce food reef corals need, and this condition called as coral bleaching. Over fishing and over harvesting also can disturb coral reef ecosystems too, and some diver who touch it can broke them.

So, what we can do coral reefs for worse conditions? There are some things we can do for preventing this to happened. First, we can provide some fish population around coral reefs. Why fish? Fish has big impact to coral reefs because fish will eat sea weeds on coral to keep coral as smooth one. Clean water is another thing we can do to keep our coral reef healthy, because clean water preventing erosion to happen which that mud can kill corals. Clean waters with lot nutrients inside will increase production of sea weeds which can be food for any predators around coral when they still larvae.

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Mangroves is second ecosystems which has big impacts to our life and we must protected from any distractions. In the right places, mangroves can help us to reduce vulnerability climates, especially which related into hazards. Mangrove identified as plant which can be used for reduce disasters risk reduction and any adaptation measures.

Another benefits we can get from mangrove is it can be important habitats for some species because mangroves live between land and sea.

Then why mangroves become important ecosystem to ocean life and our life? Oh wait, you haven’t reach the points. Mangroves already been found to act as refuge corals from oceans acidification, which means can contributes water and lot nutrients transfer to oceans ecosystems. Mangroves also can protect ocean ecosystems for any distraction because mangroves act as filter which trap any sediments before reach adjacent ecosystems.

We need conversations of mangroves because it can trap organic sediments and absorb the carbon dioxide, which means protect bad effects from global warming. Another reason why we need lot of mangroves because the benefits is like what we get from coral reefs, that means it can extremely productives ecosystems which has lot benefits for marine environments and of course for human being.

Read also: Sea Erosion

Techniques for Conservation of Oceans

There are some techniques which we can do to protecting oceans life. Some only can do by professionals, and some dont. And here’s some techniques we can do:

  • Roving diver survey

This technique could be conducted while snorkeling diving, and the surveyor only needs state and pencil to recorded data in the oceans. Divers can swim freely to record every data which identified, such as recorded any type of fishes or corals they’re see. This technique can be used in large area, and non-professionals also can do this. There are two weakness from this technique, which are data tend to be subjective and not easily compared over time.

  • The manta tow

Technique which the divers towed slowly behind a boat, recording their observation over coral reefs. This technique can be used in large area too, which usually takes one until two minutes each cycle and the boat is tracked using GPS. Speed of the boat is not really fast, only 6-8 km/h, and divers can recorded coral over categories and another creatures they have seen. Usually, every divers will recorded every things inside sea every two minutes. This technique also has some weakness too, which are: subjective and only based on estimations, only professionals who can do this, and difficult to reach some depth.

  • Transect lines

In this technique, surveyors will record all data with measuring type in one place using permanent marking points. Nylon ropes usually used and the length is about 0,5 meters. Surveyor also can used single or multiple lines, long or short ropes; and all of this depends on the goal of the survey. Its slower technique than another one, but it far away from any bias arising and subjective pacing.

Another strength point from this technique is more accurate than two techniques before and also can be compared over time. The weakness from this technique is must be professionals who do this techniques and need lot equipment before start it.

  • Quadrant

This technique is different from previous one, which means we need to placing a gid over the area which being survey. What we do in this technique is estimating how many organism and sea species who live there. The length of the grid also can be variate and of course depends on the goal of the survey, but most common used is 1mx1m. Quadrants has some strength points, which are: the results more accurate than the others, really can recorded the species inside sea instead its really small one, and don’t have to be professionals when anyone want do this technique. This technique is good to do during spring, summer, and fall. Monitoring from two until four people is the best choice to do this technique.

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Marine protected areas

Its only way we can do to protected our sea from our bad things out there? Of course not! There are another big things we can do, and some organization in the countries in world wide who also can do this too, called as Marine Protected Areas. And what exactly this? Its a space in the ocean where human activities more strictly than regulated waters, which means this places are protected by any authorities, instead its local, territorial, natives, or regional one. Marine Protected Areas are more needed now a days because it has lot benefits for our life and wild life, and it can boost health of any ecosystems and marine biodiversity.

Marine Protected Areas can be big or small one, and it depends on the goals of the reservation. As example, a large one is used for protect unique habitat for site specific life events. And the big one is used for protect some species nursery ground or protecting the area from over-fishing. There are two type of marine protected area, which each types has own goals and benefits for human being and wild life.

  • Prohibition

This type is a form control that establishes a clear yes or no basis, which means if there is person who getting in this area, they will get any punishments. As example, there are any prohibiting area and not allowing people to do fishing there. And when someone caught do fishing there, they will get punishments because what they do, and the punishments depends on the authorities.

  • Limitations

This type is different from previous one, because its still allow human activities in this area. Some activities which still allowed to do in that area are: recreation, education, and research. Human activities are allowe to do here as long not causes harmful or dangered oceans ecosystems.

Like another techniques, of course Marine Protected Areas has some benefits for humans life and oceans ecosystems. Here are some example we get from it:

  • Maintaning sea biodiversity, so no more endangered and commercial species.
  • Protecting critical habitats from destructive fishing or another human activities which can be harmful to ocean ecosystems.
  • Provides areas which fished are able to reproduce, spawn, and grow until adult size.
  • Helping people to maitain local cultures, economies, and live hoods which linked into marine environment.

Because we can get lot benefits from this technique, some countries in the world wide are have their Marine Protected Areas too. These are become tourism destination too because mostly of them has very beautiful scenery. So, are you already know which countries with this beautiful Marine Protected Areas? Here we go, some popular countries which can belong into popular Marine Protected Areas list.

A. Great barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia

As known as best and largest coral reef ecosystems in the world. Its created in 1975, make this marine park classified as a old one. This marine park covers more than 344,400 square kilometers along Australia northeastern coast.

The location focused more on coral reefs habitats, and furthermore its has 1,500 species of fishes and 360 species of hard corals.

Its not only coral reefs which only we can see while in there, there are another habitats too like: sandy cays, continental islands, mangroves forest, algae and sponge gardens, and sandy bottom communities.

This marine park also support amazing variety of biodiversity and providing home for thousand species (and some of them already classified into endangered one), which are: coral, shark, marine mammals, marine turtles, and some marine plants. Theres some goals of this park which make different than another places, which are:

  • Manage the marine park in principles of ecologically sustainable development.
  • Protect natural qualities of the park.
  • Actively manage risks to the park and adapt to catching information and circumstance in the park.

B. Bunaken National Marine Park, Indonesia

This park formaly established in 1991 at Bunaken and become first Indonesia’s marine parks. This marine park measures in under 80,000 hectares and covered sea about 97%. This park exactly located in Manado, North Sulawesi and include five islands, which are: Bunaken, Siladen, Montehage, Nain and Manado Tua.

Biodiversity supports and protected lot marine species are benefits from this marine park, and its also give high benefits for fisheries economic and tourism.

We can found some unique things in this place, such as: 58 genera and sub-genera of corals, 2,000 fish species, deepest water only about 1,360 metres, and about 25 diving area. In 2005, UNESCO classifie Bunaken as World Heritage list.

Read also: Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia

C. Pacific Remote Island Marine National Monuments, USA

Its has large areas as 490,000 m2 and that means three times bigger than California and six times bigger than the first. Commercial fishing, dumping, and mining are prohibited in this area; but recreational fishing still allowed here.

Established in 2009, goals of this marine park is to balancing need to preserve range of marine species with this concern from any fishing industries, which recently warned about economic part for oceans ecosystems.

Some endangered species are protected in this place, such as: sea turtles, silky and white strip sharks, whales, manta ray, deep sea corals, and another species. There is also facilities to educates people for more understand about how important health of the oceans and its impacts for the world. Palmyra afoll and kingman reef are type of corals which belong into this place which are known as most effective corals for ideal natural laboratories for assessing effects in planetary oceans and climate changes.

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Thats it, some information about sea conservation and what countries already did for protected them for global warming and another factors which can cause bad effects to our ocean life. But, do you know theres small things which can we start from ourselves for better environment? Really? What are they? Heres the list we can do, even its just small things:

  • Consume water only what we need, don’t over consuming.
  • Start reduce poluttions with small things, like start using bike or walking to place we are need, so its also can reduce carbon dioxide.
  • Not throwing plastic bags or garbage everywhere, because it can flaws into ocean and pollutes water; and furthermore can harm any coral and fishes.
  • Plant a tree, it will increase temperatures of the ocean and also decrease effects of global warming.

Its easy things to do, right? So, what are you waiting for? Of course we want good environment and better future, right? Start changes from yourself, and another people will follow the good changes you already make. Then those are full review about Conservation of Oceans.

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