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11 Ocean Problems Facts – Causes and Solutions

by Sekar Puspa

The oceans are the biggest resource of vital things in the earth. As a result, the ocean provides the fish resources as well as providing the oil and gasses. However, recently the ocean suffer from big problems such as the presence of pollution wasted in the water. This case occurs globally due to many factors and the ocean are undergoing serious problems for sure.

Then, the ocean faces the problems which have been heavily affected by human activities. Moreover, the severely affected areas are the Carribean, Mediterranean, North Sea, South and East China Seas, the Bering Sea, and the East Coast of North America and the Western Pacific. At this point, if the ocean has the big problem, then it will also give the impacts to animal and human’s living.

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As the consequence, what are the problems of the ocean? Then, if you are curious about what are they, check the following statement below.

1. Marine Pollution

The pollution that affects to the ocean might cause by the entry into the ocean of particles, chemicals, industrial, noise, agricultural and residential waste. As a matter of fact, the marine pollution caused by the land activities by almost 80%. Indeed, the cause is from human activities on the seas including fishing and coastal development.

The first thing that comes up with marine pollution is about the mercury pollution from coal which gives bad impacts to marine’s living. We all have known that mercury is the dangerous substances and even the amount of mercury levels in the oceans will likely be higher than now.

Indeed, the mercury comes from coal-fired power plants which are the largest industrial source. Then, can you imagine if you eat the fish which contaminated with the mercury? As a result, it affects in long food chain including in human’s dinner table. Therefore, we must aware and avoid the mercury poisoning to the fish to prevent the bigger dangers as well.

The second marine’s pollution comes from the pacific garbage and mostly are plastics. What even worse is we can see the giant patch of plastic soup sitting in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the plastics come from human’s activities by tossing the plastics waste into the ocean.

There are many places in the world dump the sewage into the oceans. This one contributes to the growth of large hazardous algal blooms. Besides, there are many industries which dump toxic chemicals into the oceans. Indeed, it affects marine species and causes organ malfunctions.

On another hand, there are toxic pesticides comes from farmlands which dump into rivers and flow into the ocean. Even, the air pollution can cause marine pollution, too. For instance, the toxic gasses produced by vehicles contributes to ocean pollution in the form of acid rain.

See also: Ocean Pollution: Causes and Effects

2. Overfishing

We can not deny that we need fish as our daily food consumption. We try to obtain the great nutrients of fish as well. As the consequence, we do fishing everyday to get fish from the ocean. However, have you ever wonder that overfishing is draining the life from the water?

As tons of fish are being caught by the fishermen year by year, do you think that we might run out stock of fish? Also, we know that the marine’s living organisms are connected from one to each other. Hence, if we caught one species to be consumed, will it be affected to the food chain of other marine animals?

As overfishing affects marine animals that are dependent upon other fish, then there will be other marine animals which are starving. This case also causes the disturbances of marine ecosystems. In addition, there is a term called ghost fishing which causes the lost or discarded fishing gear continues to catch fish and other marine life.

Then, at this point, it is true that humans threatened and endangered marine’s living for sure. Hence, complete fishing policies and requiring global cooperation to achieve a sustainable system.

Not only for the running out stock of fish, but the way people do wishing is something that must be more concerned. For instance, humans have used the destructive methods of fishing which could destroy the sea floor habitat. Thus, we as human must help keep the ocean’s fisheries healthy.

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3. Coral Reefs Destruction

Recently, coral reefs face big problems as their living are threatened by human activities and other natural factors. One of the coral reefs problems is the bleaching which comes from the increase in water temperature. Furthermore, this case is associated with global warming which has a role in warming the planet.

There is another thing that causes the coral reef destruction. Yes, it is water pollution which gives bad impacts to coral reefs living. As a result, the waste that is being tossed into the ocean is dumped in some area and this lead to change the chemical of water. Also, the plastics waste and floating trash in the ocean block the sunlight to the reefs. Moreover, this also can block the nutrients which coral reefs needed to grow.

The third ocean problem is the coral reef destruction caused by bad activities in fishing. For instance, humans use the poison like cyanide to kill the fishes and caught them. Though this poison is not specific enough to kill a specific fish, yet, the cyanide one will resulting in the destruction of coral reefs.

Last, the cause of dying coral reefs is the human’s activities such the careless tourism. We know that tourist often like to do diving and snorkeling to enjoy the ocean’s living scenery. However, they face the lack of marine’s education which can guide them to explore the ocean creations with a right and proper way.

As a result, if the tourist does not touch coral reefs, then the reefs will be just safe as well as they can help promoting coral reefs living.

Considering coral reefs are the ones that hold the vital things for marine’s ecosystem, we as humans have to protect their life. Also, as coral reef is the key to the living of marine’s organisms, then we must bring awareness to do the changes for preventing coral reef destruction.


4.  Fish Farming

Bad fish farming makes the wild fish stocks rapidly depleting. It gives the negative effects to marine’s living. Moreover, farmed fish which is released into wild populations can cause loss of native stocks, damaging changes in habitat, and even a disease transmission.

5. Extinction of Some Fish Species

This statement will be linked with the previous one due to overfishing activities. This case becomes serious issues with many kinds of fish species. For instance, the biggest problems of caught the fish are about the shark. At this point, the common practice to catch the sharks is just to cut off their fins for the food consumption due to the great nutrients contained.

Yet, people toss the left of the shark back into the ocean. Indeed, the shark will die and it left the extraordinary waste. As a result, millions of sharks are being killed each year and since this predator’s reproduction rate is slow, then this leads to the extinction of shark for sure.

6.. Dead Zones

What are actually dead zones? Well, they are the areas where the sea floor has little to no dissolved oxygen. These areas are mostly found at the mouths of large rivers. These areas also caused primarily by fertilizers. Not only by that, global warming have the main role in causing dead zones.

As the consequence, the presence of no dissolved oxygen kills many marine creatures and destroy their habitats. Recently, it is predicted that dead zones area will be increased by 50% before the end of the century. Indeed, the number likely remains to grow.

See also: Ocean Environment Facts

7. Offshore Drilling

It is no doubt that human’s activities take part in causing ocean’s problems such as wasted pollution. One of the things that is also ocean’s problems is offshore drilling. By using the fossil fuels is what makes the oceans have been heating up and becoming more acidic. These risks occur when the oil is extracted from the ocean floor and the dangerous chemical like mercury and arsenic also come up with it.

8. Bad Shipping Activities

In fact, humans do shipping to get the oils and gasses from the ocean. We ship all kinds of goods in a heavy traffic. However, the shipping leaving its mark like ship groundings, anchor damage, rubbish, oil spills, ballast water, and other bad chemical substances that endangered marine habitats.

As the consequence, we are allowed to take the ocean resources, still, considering there are a lot of marine’s ocean living, then we have to keep our action in a great way and ensuring that the action does not cause any bad impacts.

9. Warming Seas Caused by Global Warming

Climate change causes many ocean problems like rising sea levels due to the melting ice glaciers in Antarctica, coral bleaching due to warming sea, and changing species distributions. Indeed, climate change makes the bad connections to other’s living. As a result, these phenomena need a right solution in order to reduce the bad effects by rising water temperatures and levels.

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10. Acidification of The Ocean

What is ocean acidification? Well, ocean acidification appears as carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and build the formation of carbonic acid. As its name, it refers to the higher level of acidity which can inhibit shell growth in marine animals and also lead to disorders of fish reproduction. Besides, the higher level of carbon dioxide in the ocean surface comes through natural processes and burning fossil fuels.

As a result, the increasing ocean acidification will reduce the ability of reef-building corals to produce their skeletons. Not only for marine’s living organisms, but ocean acidification also affect to human’s living of food chain. As people eat seafood, then the shellfish eat can be contaminated with the ocean acidification process.

11. Air Pollution

Air pollution is primarily caused by the coal-burning power plants which can shade corals from sunlight. Also, air pollution can cause the acid rain falling on coastal areas and makes them more acidic. This case is so dangerous as it threatened the ability of corals, sea urchins, and certain types of plankton to create the hard outer exoskeletons. As the consequence, this will affect to the oceanic food chain and give the bad impacts for sure.

After talking about what are ocean problems, now we will describe several ways to deal with ocean problems below.

Ocean Problems Solutions

  • Having the Sustainable Seafood Consumption

As explained before, we have known that one of ocean problems is the overfishing. Hence, as global populations are in danger due to unsustainable fishing practices, then we have to do a thing. As a result, to help prevent the running out stock of fish, we can reduce the consumption demand of overexploited species. Indeed, we can still choose the great and healthy seafood that is sustainable.

  • Reducing Energy and Carbon Consumption

It could not be denied that climate change gives impacts to the ocean’s living. For this reason, we have to reduce the energy consumption as well as controlling the carbon footprint. At this point, you can minimalize energy use at home and work including using the public transportation instead using your own car.

  • Reducing Plastic Uses

Due to the presence of trash in ocean surface, then animals become easily trapped in the garbage. Also, it can destroy delicate sea life like coral and sponges. Moreover, dolphins and sea turtles often mistake the plastic as their foods. Even, jellyfish and squids often choking the plastics and clogging their digestive system. As a result, can you imagine how danger the plastic is?

The high demand of plastic uses can be worst to the ocean. For instance, if human still throws the plastic trash into the ocean it will block the sunlight comes through the water. Also, plastics contribute to the destruction of marine animals. As the solution, you can apply the three ways for the living. They are reuse, reduce, and recycle. Indeed, by using the non-disposable containers to store food, you have succeeded in promoting the better marine’s living

  • Reducing the Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides

To prevent the bigger area of the dead zone in the ocean, we should reduce and eliminate the use of fertilizers and pesticides which run off into the open ocean. With these actions, then we can protect the marine’s ecosystem for sure.

  • Taking Care the Ocean

Due to bad human’s activities on the ocean, now we should have a role in taking care of the ocean. For instance, you can start from the small thing such as not throwing any trash at the beach. Then, you can explore the ocean, still, you have to keep the ocean natural resources by not touching the coral reefs.

In addition, we should prevent the exploitation of fishing activities. Indeed, we have to keep the great food chain in marine’s living. Even, you can protect the ocean by joining the organizations which support the great marine’s living and organisms.

See also: Types of Sea Urchins


On the other hand, due to inadequate protection, the ocean which has been protected only by 3.4%. This number shows a little scale of protection when we know that earth has bigger water surface than the land. What is even worse is that few marine parks are protected in name only.

For this reason, we need something real and exist in a right way to support the ocean’s living. Besides, you may have heard that we should do conservation to protect the animals. Thus, this effort seems promising big thing for marine’s living.

Unless we act to protect the ocean, then the marine’s living will not in the safe place. By choosing sustainable fish, we can help prevent the loss of important habitats. Also, we can use the energy usage efficiently and reduce the use of electricity, water, fuel, and plastic bags. Indeed, as we reuse, reduce, and recycle, then we have contributed in making the less pollution. Then, as we are working together, it is a possible thing to keep the marine’s living healthy.

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