Sea is a large body of salt water and is surrounded in whole or part by land. As a matter of fact, it is known that sea takes major part than the land. It is approximately 71% part of the earth’s surface.We also have known that sea brings the major role in maintaining the earth’s climate and water cycle as well. Moreover, the sea provides many kinds of sea creatures. For instance, there are many fishes which are being used as our daily food consumption. Furthermore, it also has the natural resources you may have never expected before.
If you want to explore more about the sea, then one thing you should do is to know the good knowledge of it. You can start from knowing what actually sea is, what kinds of animals in the sea, or what sea brings to the human’s life. On the other hand, there are many means in this earth. For the example, you can find on the map that there are the Mediterranean sea and other seas as well. At this point, each of seas has different characteristics including the depth, the resources, and also different places. Then, to give you more information about the sea, we have listed the types of sea based on its specifications below.
1. Based on the Size
There are differences in every types of sea based on its sizes, as follows:
For the very first time, you may be curious about what types of the sea which are based on the size. You may think that there is large sea and some are not. Then, in this case, we will describe more about types of sea based on its size. Check it out!
When we called the group of water as an ocean, then it is actually the form of a very wide sea as well. Ocean has a large size and also the very deep depth. As a result, you can find kinds of an ocean in this world such as Pacific and Indian Oceans as well.(see also: Marine Protected Areas)
The water group which has the wide range is called as the sea. As explained before, an ocean is the largest one while the sea has the narrower range than the ocean. In the sea, you can find many kinds of plants and animals there. Also, fishermen often do fishing in the sea. As the consequence, you can find many seas in the world such as Arafuru Sea and Sumatera Sea for the example. (see also: Ocean environment)
The next type of the sea based on its size is the presence of strait. Then, what is strait? Well, it is stated that strait is the narrow sea flanked by two islands or continents. Consequently, you can find strait in Indonesia like Bali strait and Sunda Strait as well. (see also: Ocean Natural Resources)
Another type of the sea based on its size is the presence of bay. At this point, the bay is the not too wide water group which is directly adjacent to the mainland. Thus, if you want to know what kinds of the bay are, then you can find one of them in Indonesia named Teluk Bayur.
After reading about the types of sea based on its size, then you can have a look at the next types of the sea below which is based on the location.
2. Based on the Location
Meanwhile, there are also differences in every types of sea based on its locations, as follows:
- Sea Edge
The first one comes from the sea edge. As its name, this type of sea is located on the edge of the sea. Coastal is a land on the edge of the sea that flooded during high tide and dry at low tide.Then, coastal areas are larger than coastal areas. Broad coastal areas can reach between 50 – 100 m. Meanwhile, on the coastal plains, there is a process of seepage seawater, sea tides, and sea breeze, while in the waters are still influenced by land properties such as sedimentation and freshwater flow. (see also: marine energy)
The next type of sea based on its location is the presence of Mediterranean. At this point, Mediterranean is also known as the middle ocean. As the consequence, Mediterranean is located between the two continents so that it called as the middle sea. (see also: Types of Sea Urchins)
- The Inland Sea
As the consequence, one of sea types based on the location is the inland sea. This sea is being categorized as a shallow sea that covers central areas of sea continents. Also, it is located in the middle of the sea. The examples of the island sea are Caspian sea and the Aral Sea. (See also: Acidification of the Ocean)
What is strait? Well, it is known that strait is a narrow ocean between two islands or continents. Also, the strait is a natural form of water bodies which connects the sea. At this point, there are many examples of strait including Bali Strait and Madura Strait which is located in Indonesia. (see also: Global Warming in Ocean)
The last type of sea based on its location is the one called bay. Bay has the hollow-like shape and concaves to the mainland. Moreover, there are also a lot of bay examples such as Bayur Bay in Indonesia.
The next types of the sea are based on the depth of the water bodies. Then, if you want to find put what are they, you can check on the following statements below.
C. Based on Depth
In addition, based on depth, there are also differences in every types of sea, as follows:
- Litoral Zone
This zone is categorized as the zone which experienced the effects of tidal and longshore currents. Litoral is known has the abundant of dissolved oxygen, sunlight, and high wave energies and water motion as well. Also, litoral provides many kinds of sea animals and plants including the coral reefs. (see also: Ocean Problems)
- Neritic Zone
The next type of sea which is based on its depth is the presence of neritic zone. It is known that the term neritic zone refers to “near-shore” which extends from the high tide mark to the edge of the continental shelf. As a matter of fact, it has the depth till 200 m as well. Moreover, neritic is rich in its floating algae called phytoplankton, zooplankton, and decomposers like bacteria. (See also: Ocean Plants)
- Oceanic Zone
Then, the oceanic zone is the region of the open sea in the continental shelf which is divided into four parts below.
- Euphotic Zone
The first part of the oceanic zone is the one named euphotic zone. This type of sea provides the sunlight penetrates and extends down about 180 m below die surface. Also, it consists kinds of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and nekton.
- Bathyal Zone
The next one is the bathyal zone which has the depth around 200 – 2000 m. Indeed, it extends from the euphotic zone to a depth of about 2000 m. As a result, it does not receive any sunlight. (see also: Climate of the Ocean)
- Abyssal Zone
In fact, abyssal zone often called as the ocean “deeps” as it has the lower depth compared to other ones. At this point, it has the depth around 2000 m to 4500 m. Therefore, it does not receive any light, same like Bathyal Zone.
- Hadal Zone
Last, the type of sea based on its depth is the presence of Hadal Zone. As the consequence, hadal zone means the cold and dark supreme depths of the ocean trenches. As the lowest regions, it may contain the life of animals in the sea we have not discovered before like bizarre fish and arthropods. Indeed, animals who live there is the ones that survive in lightless condition for sure.(see also: How to Prevent El Nino)
As a matter of fact, there are many types of seas based on several specifications. For this reason, we have also listed the types of seas based on the occurrence process. There are three kinds of this type which is written below.
3. Based on Process of Occurrence
Fourth, there are differences in every types of sea based on the process of occurence, as follows:
- Ingression Coast
According to the process of occurrence, there is a type of sea which has the name as ingression coast. This is generally level coastline which is shaped by the penetration of the sea and formed due to the decline of the seabed with a depth of more than 200 meters. At this point, the cause of this ingression coast is the presence of falling sea level during the glacial period. (See also: Ocean Coral Reef)
- Marine Transgression
The next type of sea based on the occurrence process is the presence of marine transgression. At this point, the process involves the geologic event due to the impact of sea level rises relatives to the land and has a depth of fewer than 200 meters. Transgression in marine may be caused by the climate changes and tectonic events like orogenies. Moreover, marine transgression affects the central portion of North America and resulting in the Western Interior Seaway from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, a marine transgression often looked as the sedimentary column when there is a change from nearshore facies like sandstone to offshore like Marl and from the oldest to the youngest rocks. (see also: Surfance of Tension Liquids)
- Marine Regression
The third type of sea based on the process of occurrence is the presence of marine regression. As a matter of fact, marine regression is the opposite of marine transgression. It is also caused by the sedimentation process of land mud into the sea due to land erosion. As a result, marine regression is linked to the events involves sea level falls relative to the land which results in the former sea bottom. For the example, water removed from the seas and stored on land so that the sea regressed 120 m and exposes the Bering land bridge between Alaska and Asia.
Consequently, for the next explanation, we have listed the types of sea based on relief as written below.
4. Based on Relief
Firstly, you may wonder what actually relief is. As a result, relief is a form of the sea itself. There are seas which have the relief parts in full while others do not completely have it. Then, if you are curious about this type, let’s have a look at the following statements below. (see also: Endangered Sea Turtles List)
The first sea relief you need to know is the exposure of a continent or a shelf. It is known that the self is created by the basis of a shallow sea with an average depth of only 200 meters. It is also located along the coast of the continent or around or on the edge of the continent. As the consequence, you can found this continent exposure in Sunda Exposure and Sahul Exposure as well. (see also: Salinity of Ocean Water)
The next type of seas based on its relief is the presence of trench. The trench is a very deep and very narrow seabed that has steep walls and forms like a funnel. What is even great from the trench is that this sea type can be said as the part of the deepest sea. Moreover, it is known that trench is generally parallel o a volcanic island arc. Besides, the depth of trench can reach 5000 meters or even more. For the example, there is Mariana Trench which is in the Pacific Ocean and has the maximum depth of 11,034 meters as well. (see also: Effects of Greenhouse)
- Bottom of the Sea (Bekken)
One of sea relief is the presence of bottom of the sea or Bekken. It is known that Bekken is a part of seabed in the form of the basin. Bekken also has the concave shape and the great depth but not as deep as the sea trench. Also, it does not have steep walls and not shaped like a funnel for sure. (see also: Deep Ocean Ecosystems)
- Sea Mount
Mount of the sea is categorized as one of sea relief as it is the underwater mountain which rises from the sea floor. Also, it has the peaked or flat-topped summit below the surface of the sea. Moreover, sea mount is typically formed from extinct volcanoes that rise abruptly. The height of the mount of a sea is range from 3300 – 13100 ft as well.
In addition, you may wonder what is the link between seamount and the sea living. Then, it is stated that seamount is the marine ecosystems which interact underwater currents with the planktons, fish, corals, and other marine mammals. In contrast, people may face some problems with the presence of seamount such as the flank collapses and extrusions and also the potential for the occurrence of massive tsunamis. Further, one of the sea mounts which has been very well known by people is the presence of Mount Krakatau in Indonesia.
- Sea Back
The next sea relief is the one named sea back. It is known that sea back is a relief of the sea in the form of a mountain ridge that is on the seabed. It also has the long shape as it is the back of the mountains. (see also: Sea Salt Facts)
What is Atoll? Then, Atoll is the ring-shaped coral reef, island, or series of islets which has the very large size. It also has a circular pattern due to the ring-like shape. In Atoll, it becomes the house of kinds of marine organisms like ornamental fish and other marine plants as well. Besides, if you want to know where the atoll is, then it can be found mostly in the Pacific Ocean such as in the Tuamotu Islands, Caroline Islands, and the Marshall Islands.
The last type of sea based on its relief is the presence of Lagoon. It is known that lagoon is the part of the shallow sea located in the middle of Atoll. It is also the shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water that blocked by sand or rocks. Also, Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons.
5. Based on Types
Among the types of sea, you can find several types of the sea as written below.
- Red Sea
The red sea is one of sea types which is lying between Africa and Asia. Moreover, red sea is also known as the Erythraean Sea. It has a depth of 3,040 m and the length of 2,250 km. Then, if you wonder why this sea called as the red sea, hence it is stated that the name is linked with the presence of an algae type called Trichodesmium erythraeum and it turns into the reddish-brown color when it blooms off. (see also: Endangered Seahorses)
- Black Sea
Black sea is located between Eastern Europe and Western Asia bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Turkey, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. It also has the depth of 2,212 m as well. The water of this sea has much less saline due to the presence of microalgae concentration so that the color becomes darker. (see also: sea erosion)
- Dead Sea
Another type of the sea is the presence of the Dead sea. Dead sea often called as the salt lake whose banks are more than 400m below sea level. The salinity of this sea is very high so that there are no marine animals that can live in there. Hence, it is called as the Dead sea. (See also: Facts of Dead Sea)
Apart from the types of sea based on specifications above, there are also the types of sea based on the maps. Indeed, this categorize is based on the large sea in the earth. Hence, if you want to know what are they, you can check the list below.
6. Based on Maps
Lastly, there are differences in every types of sea based on maps, as follows:
- Pacific Ocean
As matter of fact, pacific ocean is the largest and deepest of all the oceans in the earth. As a result, it extends from Arctic in the north to Antarctica in the south, bounded by Americas in the east and Asia and Australia in the west. Further, this ocean has a depth of 10,911 meters as well and contains more than half of the earth’s volume water. Incredible, right? (read also: Causes and Effects of Tsunami)
- Atlantic Ocean
This type of ocean based on its map separate the Americas from Europe and Africa. It is also known that the Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean after the Pacific Ocean. At this point, this ocean has the total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers and covers approximately 20 percent of the earth’s surface.
- Indian Ocean
The third type of ocean based on its maps is the presence of Indian Ocean. This ocean separates India from Africa and covers 70,560,000 kilometers and the depth of 7,906 m as well. (see also: Volcano under the Ocean)
- Arctic Ocean
The next one is the presence of the Arctic Ocean which is categorized as the smallest ocean in the world. As the consequence, it has the total area of 14,06 million kilometers. (see also: Ocean Sediments)
- Southern Ocean
The last one comes from the Southern Ocean which is being the fifth world ocean. The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude and encircling Antarctica. Moreover, it has the total area of 20,93 million kilometers.
To sum up, there are many types of seas you may have never known before. According to several specifications, there are also some seas which are divided into the parts or groups. Then, by reading this article, now you have succeeded to add the knowledge about the types of seas for sure.