13 Climate of the Ocean – Types – Averages – Temperatures
There are five oceans in the world that have different climate. Climate of an area determined by its latitude.To know the type of ocean’s climate, we have to know about the climate of earth. The climate of the ocean based on condition in the land and vice versa. So, the expert classified the climate based on some feature for simplified their study. Based on the latitude, climate is divided into two type, Sun climate and physical climate.
A. Sun Climate
Sun climate as Climate of the Ocean based on the intensity of sunlight to earth surface. To further deepen the understanding of the solar climate division mentioned above you can learn in the following description.
1. Tropical climate
The tropical climate lies between 0 ° – 23,5 ° NL / SL and almost 40% of the earth ‘s surface. The characteristics of tropical climate are belows:
- The average air temperature is high, because the sun is always shine vertically to the earth.
- Generally the air temperature is between 20- 23 ° C. Even in some places, the average annual temperature reaches 30 ° C.
- The average of annual amplitude temperature is small. In khatulistiwa region such as Indonesia, the temperature of the air is between 1 – 5 ° C, while the daily ampitudo is greater.
- The air pressure of tropical climate is low and the changes of the pressures are relatively slow and regular.
- The intensity of rainfall is high and more frequent than any other area in the world
2. Sub Tropical Climate
The sub tropical climate lies between latitude 23,5 ° – 40 ° NL/SL. The area which has sub tropical climate is a transition between the tropical climate and the temperate climate. The feature of subtropical climate are as below:
- The firm border and edge can’t be determined because the climate is happened in transitional area from the tropical climate to the temperate climate. This area have a four seasons the name is summer, winter, autumn, and spring. But winter in this climate isn’t too cold. Otherwise, the summer isn’t too hot. Because of that, the temperature all over of the year is good and comfortable.
- This sub tropical regions had two type features, as follows:
- we called Mediterranean climates or ocean climate, if rainfall happened in the winter and the air of summer is dry . We will discuss ocean climate later.
- and if the rain falls happened in summer and winters have a dry air, we are called it as China’s climate regions.
3. Temperate Climate
The climate is located between latitude 40 ° – 66,5 ° NL/SL. We will describe the characteristics of temperate climate below :
- There are many cyclonal air movements and constantly changing air pressure. This can be happened because the direction of the blowing wind is always changing and uncertain. This climate allow frequent and sudden storm.
- The amplitude of annual temperature is greater than tropical climate but the amplitude of daily temperature is smaller than in tropical climates.
4.Cold Climate (Pole)
The cold climate is in the polar regions. Therefore, this climate is also referred to as polar climate. Cold climate can be divided into two, namely tundra climate and ice climate. The characteristics of the tundra climate are as follows:
- The winter is lasts for a long time.
- The cool summers are short and dry.
- The soil is always frozen throughout the year.
- In the winter the ground is covered with ice and snow. Otherwise, In the summer there are many swamps formed because of the melting of the ice at the surface of the soil.
- Vegetation type is dominant of moss and bush.
- The area that have tundra climate is: North America, the islands of northern Canada, the southern coast of Greenland, and the northern coast of Siberia.
While the characteristics of an ice climate or polar climate are as follows:
- The temperature is very low so that there is always an eternal snow at the land and the ocean.
- Its territory includes: the north pole, example Greenland and Antartic at the south pole.
B. Physical Climate
What is a physical climate? Physical climate is one of Climate of the Ocean and classified according to the actual circumstances or facts in an area of the land and ocean as a result of the influence of the natural environment in the region. Such as the influence of the oceans, the vast land, the relief of the face of the earth, the wind, and the rainfall.
So, this climate can be changing if there is a change in Ocean environment such as global warming in ocean, ocean pollution, acidification of the ocean, effect of sea level rise and also ocean phenomena. Physical climate can be divided into ocean climate, continent climate, highland climate, mountain climate and seasonal climate (monsoon).
5. Ocean climate or Maritime climate
The sea climate is in tropical and sub-tropical regions Climatic conditions in both areas are very different. Characteristics of marine climates in the tropics and sub-tropics up to latitude 40 °, are as follows:
- The low annual average temperature.
- Amplitude of daily temperature is low or small daily.
- There are many clouds.
- Often heavy rain accompanied by sudden storms.
The characteristics of the sea climate in the temperate climate area is as follows:
- Amplitude of daily and annual temperature is so small.
- Many clouds in ocean.
- Heavy rainfall in winter and generally, the rain is spatter.
- The transition between summer and winter in that area sometimes occur suddenly or otherwise.
That is about ocean climate. At the end of this description there is a long explanation about this climate because this climate is unique ocean’s climate.
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C. Continent Climate
Continent climate as Climate of the Ocean is has different feature in tropical, sub-tropical regions and also in temperate regions. The characteristics of continent climates in the tropics and sub-tropics up to latitude 40 is as follows below:
- The amplitude of the daily temperature is very high otherwise the amplitude of temperature is low
- The precipitation in that area is low rainfall with accompanied with a moment taufan.
The characteristics of Continent climate in the temperate region are as follows below:
- Large amplitude of annual temperature;
- The average temperature in summer is quite high and in winter is low
- Very little rainfall and is happened in the summer.
6. Climate of the Highlands
This climate is present in the highlands with the characteristics, are as follows:
- Amplitude of daily and annual temperature is large.
- Dry air.
- Humidity is very low.
- The frequent of rainfall is rare.
7. Climate of the Mountain
Climate mounts are in the highlands, as in Tibet and Dean. Its characteristics are as follows:
- Amplitude of daily temperatures is lower than highland climate.
- There is a temperate area.
- Amplitude of daily and annual temperature is low.
- Rainfall much fell on the front slope and fell slightly in the rainfall shadow area.
- Sometimes there is snow
D. Season Climate
Season climate is also called muson. This Climate of the Ocean is present in the area through which the seasonal climate changes every half year. Its characteristics are as follows:
- Every half year, there is a wet sea breezes that blow in the area and result in wet and rainy season
- Another half year, there is dry west wind that blow to the same region and will caused the dry season.
In addition, to climate divisions according to the location of latitude and altitude, the following will be described on climate division according to some experts:
Climate Division According to Drs. Wladimir Koppen
In 1918 Dr. Wladimir Koppen (climate scientist from Germany) made a worldwide climate classification based on the temperature and humidity of the air. Both elements of climate is very big influence on the surface of the earth and life on it. Under that provision Koppen divides the climate in five principal climatic areas. Each climatic region is given the symbols A, B, C, D, and E.
Climate A or tropical climate. The characteristics are as follows:
- a monthly average temperature of not less than 18 ° C,
- an average annual temperature of 20 ° C-25 ° C,
- average rainfall more than 70 cm / year, and
- diverse growing plants.
Climatic area A, divided into four kinds of climate, as follows:
- Af = Climate hot tropical rain.
- As = Climate savanna with dry summers.
- Aw = Climate savanna with winter dry.
- Am = Climate between, the dry season only briefly.
Climate B or tropical desert climate or dry climate, with the following characteristics:
- It is in the desert and semiarid regions
- The lowest rainfall is less than 25.4 / year, and large evaporation;
Climatic area B, divided into two kinds of climate, namely:
- Bs = Climate steppa, is a transition from desert climate (BW) and humid climate from climate A, C, and D.
- BW = Desert Climate.
Climate C or temperate climate. Its characteristic is the coldest average temperature of the month between 18 ° to -3 ° C.
Climatic area C, divided into three kinds of climate, namely:
- Cs = Medium climate (sea) with dry summers or rather dry hot humid climates.
- Cw = Medium climate (sea) with dry winter or humid and cool climate.
- Cf = moderate (continental) climate with rain on all months.
Climate D or snow or microthermal climate. Its characteristics are as follows: The hottest average month is more than 10 ° C, while the mean temperature of the coldest month is less than – 3 ° C.
Climate D area, divided into two kinds of climate, namely:
- Dw = Medium climate (dry land) with dry winter.
- Df = Medium climate (land) with wet winters.
Climate E or polar climate. Characteristic is found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, the temperature is never more than 10 ° C, while the average temperature of the coldest month is less than – 3 ° C.
Climate area E, is divided into 2 types of climate, namely:
- ET = Climate tundra, hottest month temperature between 0 – 10 ˚C
- Ef = Snow climate, climate where there is eternal ice.
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Ocean climate is a name of typical climate that is happened at west coast in higher middle latitudes of continent. When summer, this area has a relative cool temperature based on their latitude and when already in winter, the temperature is not so cold.
Because of that characteristic, Ocean climate is defines as an ocean that having a monthly mean temperature below 22˚C or 72˚F in the warmest month and above 0˚C (32˚F) in the coldest month.
This ocean relatively has a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, expect the transitional area of continental such as subartic and highland.
You can feel the ocean climate when you live or stay in North Western Europe, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, Canada, portion of southwestern South America, small area of Southeast Australia and New Zealand and another isolated location. This area doesn’t have dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year.
The area that have ocean climate is located at the belt of the stormy westerlies and have so much storm activities. The weather is mostly have a frequent cloudy or overcast condition that is happened because of frequent storm. The annual temperature is lower than other area that has hot summer and cold winter. This temperature is due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through area that has ocean climate. This air doesn’t have very warm and very cool fronts.
The rainfall happened to the area of ocean climate throughout the majority of year. It may snowfall storm one a year but not frequent as non-ocean climate area such as outside of Australia and parts of New Zealand. But when the area is reaching the polar pole’s location, the snowfall is more frequent and commonplace.
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The temperature of ocean climate is mostly has cool and infrequent extreme temperature. Based on Koppen climate classification, ocean climate have a mean temperature between -3 to higher in the winter than other area.
Then, the summer of ocean climate have cool wind and the warmest temperature is 22˚C. The last edge of polar pole is an area of ocean climate with long and cold winter (but is not so cold) also it has cool and short summer (the mean temperature of this zone is 10˚C. The example of this area is parts of coastal iceland at the northern hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the southern hemisphere such as Ushuaia and Punta Arenas.
Ocean climates are always found in ocean climate higher middle latitude ocean, range from 45-60˚ latitude. Because of this latitude the ocean climate are made of by polar jet stream. This polar jet stream moves from west to east direction across the middle latitudes.
This direction of polar jet stream makes a system of low pressure, storms and fronts. Ocean climate is a reflection of nearby ocean, when it’s already fall, winter and early spring, the polar jet system is most active and then the fogs, cloudy skies and light drizzle often appear frequently.
When summer, high pressure often push north westerlies of many ocean climate, this phenomenon will create dry summer climate. The area that has dry summer climate is Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.
The tropical air of North atlantic stream flow throughout north Carribean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina, then heads east-northeast to the Azores. The north atlantic gulf stream is thought to make a greatly change of Northwest’s Europe climate.
This will result in much milder winters in west coast areas that is located in mddle high latitudes like Ireland, United Kingdom and Norway based on their latitude.The low altitude is a characteristic of some western Europe that help make marine air masses drive to continental areas such as Dersden, Prague and Vienna which is located reltive far from the ocean become maritime climate.
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Northwest Europe have ocean climate from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Other ara that have northwest europe is north coast of Spain (Basque country, north of navarre, asturias and Cantabria) most of france (far away from mediterranean), Germany, Norway, the, Western Azore off the south of Portugal and Southern area of Sweden.
Another place that you can find ocean climate is Donostia-San Sebastian Biarrit London, Bergen, Zuric, Copenhagen, Dublin, Berlin, Bilbao, Bayonne, and Paris. As the dreasing distance of the inland area and mediterranean Sea, the ocean climate of Northwest Europe gradually change, from dry summer or Mediterranean climate of Southern Europe to subtropical.
Beside of that, there is imaginary line which is lining from north to west and make Europe continent become west and east. This west and east area have different climate between ocean and continental climate in Europe.
If you visit east Europe, you will feel the winter is colder than west Europe and in some region, you will find hotter summer in some west area. The different climate will responsible with the changes of precipitation patterns and differences to seasonal temperatures.
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In America, the region that have ocean climate spreading across the north-western coast of North America from the Alaskan panhandle to northern California and look like an arc. For simple, you can find this climate at the coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. The ocean climate also happened in Alaskan panhadle, western portions of British Columbia, western parts of Washington and Oregon, and north-western California.
The climate seem not only happened in west region of America, some east coast areas di have ocean climate such as some higher elevations along the southern Appalachian Mountains including Martha’s Vineyard,Nantucket, Block Island, Cape Cod have a similar climate.