Every country, province, city, even village certainly has the potential of natural resources in it. Its natural resources can be a source of wealth from the area. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct proper management and utilization so that natural resources can become their own potential. The use of natural resources alone can be managed by several parties, from the government or even the private sector. Both parties can support each other in managing natural resources.
The principles of natural resource management are one of many countries’ strategies that we have to pay more attention at in order to make use of natural resources with considerable potential. This is what sometimes makes the community motivated to use as much natural resources as possible. This attitude is only natural because of the human nature that is never satisfied with their needs. This is also what drives the massive exploitation of natural resources. So as to keep the sustainability of natural resources in place, principles are needed as explained below.
- Optimal Principles
The Constitution in article 33 paragraph 3 states that: The earth, water, and natural resources contained therein are controlled by the state and are used for the greatest prosperity of the people. Based on the article, it can be explained if the optimization of natural resource management must be truly carried out. What is meant by optimization here can take the form of utilizing natural resources by taking existing natural wealth as a whole and maximizing profits and minimizing losses that can occur.
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In addition, the optimization is also in the interests of the people and the state, but still takes into account the sustainable use of these natural resources going forward. Even so, this optimization does not only allow everything to take wealth without any limitations and immature planning. However, it has to be carried out with full responsibility, wisdom, and also, we all need to apply the principle of sustainable development, in the following meanings:
- What is meant by sustainable development here is development which is carried out to be able to meet the needs of the present but not to sacrifice the right to fulfillment in future generations.
- Exploitation of natural resources is something real and done to meet current needs but still does not sacrifice future needs.
- The future generations can still feel and enjoy the natural resources that exist today.
For example, lately there has been a lot of discussion about world oil reserves, especially those in Indonesia which are running low. To overcome this, the government took several steps to prevent this condition. One of the problems is by issuing a policy regarding the conversion of kerosene in the form of gas. This policy is based on research conducted by experts regarding the availability of natural gas resources that are still abundant in Indonesia.
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This policy is an example of maximizing the use of natural resources but does not need to sacrifice the needs of future generations. In addition, other efforts that can be done are using alternative energy sources. The use of alternative energy sources will be very effective to reduce the use of non-renewable energy sources. Not only that, the use of alternative resources will reduce pollution and other negative effects.
- Sustainable Principles
The principles of natural resource management in the form of sustainability are the management of existing natural resources and ecosystems, the purpose of which is to be able to maintain their shape and character. The principle of sustainability in natural resource management is an effort which is carried out in order to maintain existing natural resources. These natural resources must be managed in a balanced manner so as to ensure the sustainability of national development. The following are some applications to the concept of sustainable principles:
- Using Organic Fertilizers
The use of organic fertilizer in agriculture will be very appropriate because it can maintain the sustainability of the land used. Soil fertility will not affected if they are using organic fertilizer rather than using chemical fertilizers because it always experiences regeneration of living bodies in organic fertilizer.
- Use of Pesticides According to Needs
The use of pesticides in agriculture is certainly a natural thing to prevent the occurrence of harmful pests and diseases. However, to maintain the preservation of natural resources, the use of pesticides must be in accordance with the need so that not a lot of residue settles. If a lot of residue settles, of course it will affect soil fertility and the quality of the plants produced.
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- Land Preservation
Efforts from land preservation can be carried out by promoting activities such as re-greening on deforested land. For areas with sloping positions, terracing is built to inhibit the flow of rainwater, so as to avoid the risk of landslides.
- Air Preservation
Why? This is because the existing natural resources will not only be used for the current generation, but also used for future generations. Air preservation efforts that can be carried out include:
- Strive to reduce gas from combustion remnants. For example, such as reducing harmful gas emissions and installing filters in the factory chimney.
- Conduct tree planting efforts in the surrounding environment so that they can absorb harmful gases. In addition, existing plants can also produce oxygen for humans through photosynthesis.
- Suppress the use of chemical gases which can damage the ozone layer in the atmosphere.
- Forest Preservation
In utilizing these natural resources, there are two principles that are most preferred in them, namely optimal and sustainable. Forest conservation efforts that can be carried out include:
- Reforestation or reforestation in deforested forests
- Policy regarding arbitrary clearing of forests
- Implementing a selective and cutting cropping system
- Severe sanctions for perpetrators who violate regulations regarding forest management
- Conservation of the Sea and Coast
We can start from making regulations on Natural Resources, as operators of Natural Resources management, and controlling each other in the process of managing Natural Resources. The sea and beach conservation efforts that can be carried out include:
- Prohibit the theft of rocks around the coast or the seabed.
- Prohibit the use of chemicals and explosives when looking for chemicals.
- Conduct beach reclamation by planting mangroves on the coast.
- Preservation of Flora and Fauna
The principles of natural resource management and efforts to preserve flora and fauna are carried out by building wildlife and nature reserves. Wildlife sanctuary is a forest area that is used as a sanctuary for protected and non-hunted animals. While the nature reserve is a friend of the forest which is used as a place to protect plants, animals, land, and other historic places.
So, those are some principles of managing natural resources that exist. Proper management of natural resources will certainly be beneficial, not only for the community but also the country. Hopefully the information above can be useful for you.