7 Utilizations of Water Resource in Human Life
In Indonesia, water resources are natural resources controlled by the state and utilized for people’s welfare. Water resources are needed by every living thing for their survival. But the water crisis is sweeping a number of continents in the world. Even the Asian continent which has high rainfall is still hit by a drought in several countries, including Indonesia. Therefore the use of water resources must be done wisely. The following is an explanation of the use of water resources in human life.
The first discussion is the benefits of water resources. The benefits of water resources are actually very much. Here are some examples of the use of water resources for human life and their explanations.
- As a Source of Irrigation in Agriculture
Sufficient water resources are needed to irrigate agricultural land. Irrigation in agriculture is often carried out by farmers during the dry season where rain does not fall. Irrigation is also done when plants are ready to be harvested. If there is no irrigation, then agricultural crops cannot grow properly. Because of this, farmers must have sufficient water resources available for irrigation needs.
- As a Fulfillment of Household Needs
Water is very often used in household activities, such as water for drinking, bathing, washing, and cooking. Fulfilling water resources for household needs usually, come from groundwater. Each house usually has groundwater wells with a depth of 5 meters to 15 meters to meet daily needs. Not only utilizing groundwater sources, but each family should also try to preserve the sustainability of groundwater resources. One of them is by making rainwater infiltration wells as a form of groundwater conservation.
- As a Source of Electricity
Water resources become one of the sources of electric power generation which is called Hydroelectric Power Plant. Water flowing from its source can be used to drive a power plant turbine. The rotating turbine will change the potential energy from water to mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is then converted by an electric generator into electrical energy. This makes the government build many reservoirs and dams to accommodate and drain water so that it is sufficient for water to generate electricity.
The development of industry also influences the increasing need for electricity. Production machines in many industrial activities and household appliances use electrical energy. The government has not fully been able to meet the electricity needs in all regions of Indonesia. Many inland areas do not have access to electricity.
For regions that have a strong river flow and have not had access to electricity, they can make their own electricity sources using the principle of micro-hydro utilization. The principle can be applied by damming river water and then flowing into a ditch or water reservoir. The filtered water in the shelter has then flowed through the pipe to a place called the powerhouse. Inside the powerhouse, there are turbines, generators, and transformers that function to convert the potential energy of water into electrical energy and increase the voltage.
- As Raw Material
Some industries use water as a raw material in the production process. An example is an industry of making ice cubes and the bottled mineral water industry. The industry still has to prioritize public interest in the utilization of water resources. In addition, the industry must play an active role in maintaining the sustainability of water resources. This is because the volume of water used by industry is far greater than the quantity of water used by ordinary people.
- As a Medium of Cleanliness
Water is widely used as a medium of cleanliness. For example, in daily activities, humans use water to clean the body, clean the cooking utensils, and also clean the house. Cleaning the body has a purpose to maintain personal health. So, water resources indirectly affect human health, especially in terms of salinity. If the availability of water to clean the body is sufficient, the health of the body can be maintained.
- As an Indicator of Environmental Sustainability
Water resources are needed by other living beings. Plants need water to grow and develop. Animals also need water for their survival. If water resources are not available, many plants will die from drought and animals will also lack water to drink. This can affect the balance of the ecosystem. If many plants die, air pollution cannot be properly described so that environmental conservation efforts will be hampered. Therefore, conservation of water resources is also part of efforts to maintain environmental balance.
- Streamlining the People’s Economy
As explained earlier that water affects several industries and also people’s livelihoods. Farmers need water to grow crops. The industry needs water as raw material. Certain regions also use river water for transportation. If the flow of water for community needs is smooth, then the community’s economy will also run smoothly.
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Policy for Utilizing Water Resources
After knowing the benefits of water, it is also necessary to know what policies must be made in the utilization of water resources so that the sustainability of water resources is maintained. Following are some policies that can be applied in the utilization of water resources.
- Water supply must meet the requirements, namely the quality and quantity of water to meet daily needs.
- Irrigation and swamp systems must be developed so that they can help productivity in agriculture, improve food security, and the welfare of farmers.
- The efficiency and effectiveness of the use of water for irrigation must be improved by prioritizing maintenance, operations, improving work, and rehabilitation rather than the construction of new irrigation.
- The use of water resources must support the people’s economy effectively and efficiently by making consideration of the interests between sectors and between regions.
- The principle of underwriting the cost of processing water resources must be applied to beneficiaries of water.
- The role of the business world in the utilization and processing of water resources must continue to prioritize the public interest.
- Make an environmental impact analysis before making a building in a water catchment area.
- It is necessary to control pollution of water resources, especially for sources of groundwater, rivers, and lakes.
- Applying the cost of mitigating water pollution to industries or anyone who pollutes water resources.