Understanding Seawater Movements
Seawater is a mass of substances that easily move from one place to another. As the name implies, seawater movements are movements of sea water caused by several factors such as wind, temperature differences, earthquakes, etc. Sea water can move horizontally, vertically or a combination of horizontal and vertical movements called turbulence. In general, there are 2 types of seawater movements, namely Sea Current (Sea current), Sea Wave (Sea Wave), Tidal Sea (Ocean Ride).
Classifications of Seawater Movement
- Ocean Flow
Ocean currents are the movement of the mass of water in the sea either vertically or horizontally so as to form a balanced movement that is very wide across the oceans in the world. There are several causes of the emergence of seawater, including wind blowing or differences in density or movement of ocean waves.
In general, there are two factors that cause the occurrence of ocean currents, namely:
- Internal factors: Factors related to seawater itself, for example, water density, pressure gradients, and seawater friction.
- External factors: Factors that are related to the other components around the ocean, for example, the movement of wind, air pressure, gravitational force, attraction of the sun, moon, etc.
Seawater is formed because of the process of moving the mass of water in towards balance which involves the horizontal and vertical displacement of the mass of the water. This movement is formed from the resultant of several working forces and several factors (described above) that influence it.
- Sea Waves
Sea waves are the movement of the rise and fall of seawater without being accompanied by the transfer of mass of water. Sea waves have dimensions in the form of wave periods (T), wavelengths, wave heights, and wave propagations. This ocean wave is a phenomenon of periodic increase and decrease in water that can be found in almost all places in the world. There are several causes for the occurrence of ocean waves, but the most frequent is due to wind blowing, earthquakes, and changes in the depth of the sea floor.
Ocean waves occur based on the principle of physics, namely if there are two different masses of density (density) rub against each other, then there is a plane of motion will form waves.
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When specific observations are made on ocean wave movements, it is found that wave water does not move forward, but rather moves circularly, so that water only moves up and down when the waves pass. Waves can move for long distances, but the medium (liquid, solid or gas) can only move limited.
- Tidal Seawater
Tidal sea water is a change in sea level that takes place periodically because of the influence of the gravitational force of the moon and sun on the earth. The tides occur based on Newton’s Law that reads:
“Two objects will attract each other with power inversely proportional to the power of two distances.”
Based on the law, the farther the distance the smaller the attraction will be. Because the distance of the earth to the sun is further than the distance of the earth to the moon so that the tides are more influenced by the moon.
If the surface is higher than the average sea level, the condition is said to be high meanwhile when the surface is lower with the average sea level then it is called receding.
Benefits of Seawater Movements
- It can be used for water transport activities.
- Maintain the temperature and climate stability of the world
- Through the wave surface, gas exchange occurs
- Improve the ability of adaptation and diversity of living things
- Helping to protect and maintain the beach
- As an energy source