Water is one of the primary needs in human life which is currently experiencing frequent water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems that are now being faced by people around the world including in this country of Indonesia. The impact of this problem is that it will have a very detrimental effect on the lives of humans and animals or plants. Water pollution is caused by various sources such as due to human or industrial activities. The following are various sources of water pollution in Indonesia:
- Household Waste
Household waste is the most dominant source of water pollution because of the effects of daily activities such as bathing, washing clothes or household appliances. This water from household waste can cause water pollution. This is certainly unavoidable given that most of the Indonesian people flow the water directly to the ditch that is channeled to the river.
The second dominant source of water pollution comes from industrial activities, both small and large industrial industries. This industrial activity certainly also produces waste in the form of smoke or liquid. This liquid will then be discharged into the drainage and cause water pollution. This industrial liquid certainly contains dangerous chemicals. Of course, it will be dangerous if it has been mixed with water and then used in daily life for those who live in the area around the industry.
The third source after household waste and industrial activities is mining activities. Mining activities in the form of an oil emulsion production process will certainly produce liquid waste that causes pollution. This liquid waste from mining is categorized as dangerous because most mining products contain heavy metals (mercury) which of course damages the river’s ecosystem. Not only that, if the waste from the mine mixes with water then is used by humans to wash or bathe, it will cause the body to become susceptible to disease.
When used for washing, it will cause the fabric to become damaged quickly. This is due to the presence of chemicals in the waste.
- Processed Waste
The next source comes from processed waste products in the form of liquid waste. This liquid waste comes from the waste leaching process which can cause water pollution in the soil. Later the water that seeps into the soil will then be taken to the river and water pollution will occur.
In a laboratory, of course, there are many experiments and many activities in looking for things such as looking for blood groups, looking for a certain pH, and so on. In this case, the residual liquid from the experiment results will be discharged into the water channel and certainly cause pollution.
The waste from laboratory results is certainly more dangerous than mining waste because this laboratory waste contains more dangerous and addictive chemicals so that if it is not prevented, it will have a negative impact on the water ecosystem.
Next comes from trading activities. These trade wastes are derived from oil waste which is an activity in a motorbike workshop, waste originating from street vendors, and so on. Waste from this trade has a lot of various substances, ranging from substances that have an impact that is not too bad to have a very bad impact. This trade waste is the dominant source of water pollution after household waste, industrial waste, and mining waste.
- Animal Husbandry and Agriculture
The last source comes from livestock and agricultural activities. In agricultural activities, of course, is the term pesticide. If pesticides are not used wisely it will cause water pollution. Agricultural activities that can cause pollution include cleaning up animal waste. Even though the animal manure can be used as fertilizer so that the plants become more fertile and even the fertilizer can be sold.
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Water pollution will certainly have a detrimental effect on the environment and the community, so it is necessary to take measures to prevent water pollution. These efforts include:
- Neutralization of Waste – Waste originating from industry, mining or households should be neutralized before being discharged into the river so that the chemicals contained are lost and safe when used in daily life.
- Reducing the Use of Pesticides – As much as possible to reduce pesticide use and further increase efforts to eradicate pests using more environmentally friendly methods.
- Waste Recycling – It is necessary to recycle waste into something of value such as the use of used plastic bottles and cans as a place for plants. In addition, organic waste can be used to be processed into compost.
- Maintaining River Cleanliness – Every citizen is expected to have a high awareness of the cleanliness of their environment by disposing of garbage in its place rather than throwing garbage in the river or ditch. This is in addition to reducing the occurrence of water pollution but also can prevent flooding.
Types of Water Pollution
Water pollution from various sources above turns out to have a variety of types. In general, the types of water pollution are divided into 2 types, namely water point source pollution and non-point water pollution.
- Point Water Pollution – This is a type of water pollution originating from one location. An example of this type of pollution is waste originating from factory waste which is then flowed into underground waste storage tanks. But when the waste is in the tank reservoir, the waste will come out due to the presence of cracks in the tank.
- Non-Point Water Pollution – This type of water pollution is the opposite of point source water pollution. Non-point water pollution is a type of water pollution originating from various points. It can be said that this type of pollution occurs due to the accumulation of small contaminations collected in a large area. An example of this type of water pollution is the residual flow of inorganic fertilizer that flows from agricultural land which then flows into the river or seeps into the soil which can adversely affect the soil ecosystem.
That is a description of the sources of water pollution that occur in Indonesia along with prevention efforts to avoid pollution.