Earth is a planet that has two large parts, namely land and sea. The two large parts of the Earth have different ecosystems. Land ecosystems are ecosystems that are on land whereas seawater ecosystems are ecosystems that are in the sea.
Each ecosystem still has another ecosystem in it. As in terrestrial ecosystems, there are mountain ecosystems, tropical rain forest ecosystems, swamp ecosystems, river ecosystems, and coastal ecosystems while the sea has an ecosystem that is seen based on its depth. One ecosystem in the sea is a coral reef ecosystem.
There are many ecosystems in the Earth, due to the different forms of relief on the surface of the Earth, land, and sea. This difference in face relief causes the surface shape to be uneven. This happened due to the existence of two forces forming the face of the Earth. The energy produces pressure that can change the shape of the Earth’s surface. The power is exogenous power and endogenous power.
The Earth has a layer of structure that forms the Earth. This layer consists of many parts, one of which is a rock while the living place of living things on Earth is in the outer layer of the Earth, namely the Earth’s crust. The crust can be said to be the surface of the Earth. The shape of the Earth’s surface has various forms. There are bumps, hollows, and folds. The shape of the Earth’s surface occurs in all parts of the Earth, starting from the land to the ocean. Endogenous and exogenous energy are two forces that play a role in the formation of the Earth’s surface.
Endogenous energy is energy originating from within the Earth. This energy is formed due to geothermal energy which puts pressure on the Earth’s crust so that each layer will give each other a boost or pull on the layers of the Earth’s skin and give shape to the outer layer of the Earth’s skin. Endogenous power can be in the form of folds or faults. Endogenous power can be in the form of:
- Tectonism is energy originating from within the Earth, a result of the heat at the core of the Earth which gives a glare to the Earth’s layer above it. This pressure causes fractures and folds on the Earth.
- Volcanism is the energy produced by eruptions of magma originating from within the Earth. Magma is a hot liquid that is inside the Earth’s core. This liquid comes out through the canal inside the mountain.
- Seism is an Earthquake. Earthquakes occur due to vibrations originating from within the Earth. This vibration is caused by a fault or fold process. This vibration can also come from the movement of the Earth’s plates that occur in the sea. If the vibrations that occur are very large at sea, there can be a potential for a tsunami.
Exogenous energy is energy that feels from outside the Earth. Sources of strength from exogenous energy are water, wind, and glaciers. Endogenous strength is a force that is capable of carrying weathering material and eroding the surface of the Earth. It can be said that exogenous energy is energy that changes the shape of the face of the Earth due to endogenous energy. Exogenous examples of energy are:
- Sedimentation: In this process, wind power, water, and glaciers carry material originating from sedimentary material, and then accumulate it in one particular area which ultimately changes the relief of the region.
- Erosion: This process is erosion carried out by water, wind, or glaciers. In this process, the surface of the Earth becomes eroded and changes into a new form.
As a result of these two forces, the surface of the Earth becomes uneven. In addition, this energy creates a clear boundary between land and sea. Mainland that is between land and sea is called the seafront.
The Surface of the Earth Side of the Seas
The shape of the Earth’s surface has various forms and these forms give rise to different regions and ecosystems. The Earth which is divided into land and sea has an area on land that has the position closest to the sea. This land is called the seafront. This land can be said to be the boundary between sea and land.
In addition, the seafront land is also one of the aspects of carrying sediment material to be brought to the sea. Seafront landforms are formed mainly due to exogenous energy. Because on the seafront, this area gets two big powers that are used by exogenous power, namely water and wind.
Water and wind are a means of transporting sedimentary substances, besides that water and wind have the power to erode an area. In the shape of the seafront Earth, the shape is divided into two, namely because of erosion and sedimentation process. Both of these forces occur alternately and continuously, thus creating various kinds of relief on the beach. The following is an explanation of the advanced shape of the seafront Earth:
- Erosion Process
The seafront area is an area very close to the sea, besides that this area is one of the areas on Earth that has a temperature difference between land and sea. This temperature difference causes coastal areas to have high winds. Erosion is the erosion of the Earth’s surface by water, wind, and glaciers. On the seafront, this erosion process is carried out by sea water and wind. Wind erosion is called deflation while erosion by seawater is called abrasion. There are 7 kinds of seafront reliefs formed by erosion. That is:
- High cliff is an area around the seafront. It is steep and hard. It is the arrangement of rocks that make up the plateau. These rock structures are eroded by wind and seawater.
- Cape is a land that juts into the sea. This land occurs due to the erosion of soft rocks by sea water and wind. This land is usually used as a place of recession because this land makes the sea closer.
- The bay is a sea that juts into the land. The process of headland occurring is the same as what happened to the cape. What happened was that the land became increasingly narrow. The bay is commonly used as a harbor, fish market, and residential area.
- Seafront caves are large or small rooms on cliffs which are eroded by sea water or wind. The sea cliff is eroding and forms a large space inside the sea cliffs. This room can continue to widen inward if it is constantly being eroded.
- The sea gate is two caves on the seafront that are constantly getting eroded. As a result, the two caves became united and formed a gate that was inside the cliff.
- The embankment stone is a cave collapse that occurs due to the inability of the cliff to support the cave. The cliff is unable to hold the cave due to ongoing erosion. This erosion causes the cliff’s foot to become thinner. Thin legs result in a cave collapsing.
- Remaining levees are remnants of embankment stones. Remaining levees can only be seen during low tide. When in pairs, the remaining dikes are covered with sea water.
- Sedimentation Process
The process of sedimentation is the process that occurs due to water, wind, or glaciers carrying sedimentary material and accumulating it. This accumulated material causes the formation of the face of the Earth. In the seafront area, personnel carrying sedimentary material are sea water and wind. There are 5 seafront forms that occur due to the sedimentation process, namely:
- The beach is a land that becomes a barrier between land and sea. The beach is one of the sources of sedimentary material carried into the sea.
- Spit is a long land that occurs around the coast. Spit occurs due to ocean currents that carry sand and sediment material to the middle of the sea. As a result, the land becomes elongated.
- A tombolo is a bridge formed through sedimentation. This bridge connects between the main island and the island in the middle of the sea. The process of forming the tombolo is the same as the spit.
- Beach barriers or natural dikes are embankments formed by sedimentation. This embankment is formed as a result of a spit that extends and surrounds the island, thus forming a fence that surrounds part or all of the island.
- Nehrung is a sand dune around the beach. This dune occurs due to wind power carrying sand and sediment material and accumulates it around the seafront.