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The Process of Spring’s Occurrence – Classification and Type

by Widiya

Earth contains lots of water and there are many types of water on Earth. Sources that provide water are called water sources. There are many sources of water that exist around human life and can be easily found. Some water sources that are often found in daily life include the sea, lakes, wells, reservoirs, springs, swamps, and so forth. Some of these water sources exist or are formed naturally, but some of them are man-made. Whether it is formed naturally or man-made, everything that causes water to arise is called a water source.

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Definition of Springs

Springs are one of the water sources on Earth. They are a place on the land of Earth that can emit water emanating from the Earth or from the ground or from the mountains. The water that comes out or radiates certainly leads to the surface of the Earth and the discharge of water from the aquifer. Aquifers themselves are underground layers that contain water and have the ability to drain water so that water in the soil can be raised to the surface to be used by living creatures that live on the surface of the Earth, as well as river benefits, and the benefits of the lake.

Formation of Springs

Springs are one of the water sources in Indonesia. This spring is formed because of the natural process of nature itself but this does not mean that the springs can be formed directly. These springs can be formed because they pass through several natural processes. Natural processes that support the formation of these springs will be explained in this article.

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Springs, in fact, are sources of water that come from outside the Earth, then enter the Earth, and come out again into something new. The occurrence of this spring is inseparable from the role of water found on the surface of the Earth, both in the form of running water and falling rain water that soaks the surface of the Earth. Water that is on the surface of the Earth will seep into the soil and transform to ground water. Then, the ground water will radiate or spray to the surface of the Earth through aquifers and bursts which are called springs. So in broad outline, the process of the spring’s occurrence consists of three stages, namely surface water, then ground water, and the last is water that emanates from the ground.

  1. Surface water – is water that is on the surface of the Earth. This surface water can come from several sources of flowing or non-flowing water such as rivers, lakes, swamps, seas, etc., but it can also come from the rain that falls. The rain will also reach the Earth’s surface and sometimes form a certain puddle if the rain falls heavily. This water on the surface of the Earth will later form a spring.
  2. Infuse into the ground – The next process is that surface water will seep into the ground through the existing gaps. The surface water that gets into this soil is called groundwater. This groundwater is an underground water source that is very important. This groundwater is still able to flow, namely through cracks and gaps in the ground in the form of small gaps to underground caves. Groundwater, before it radiates to the surface already has many functions for human life and also for other living things, such as for agriculture, plantations, etc.
  3. Radiating to the surface – The next process is to radiate to the surface. The groundwater which was originally inside the soil was due to several things going to surface through existing aquifers because the flow of groundwater from the inside goes to the surface of the Earth caused by limited aquifers, and also the surface of the groundwater is at a higher elevation from where the water comes out. So that on the surface of the Earth, there will be water emitting from the ground. This is what we call as a spring.

Those are the three core processes of the occurrence of springs which have many functions for human life and also for other creatures.

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Spring Type

Springs are one source of water that have diverse characteristic. These springs are affected by various factors such as morphological conditions, geological structure, lithology, and also local land use. In general, this type of spring is seen from several classifications, namely:

  1. Judging from the formation process, the springs are divided into:
  • Depression spring, which is a spring that is formed due to the presence of a soil surface that cuts off the groundwater table.
  • Marta fracture water/fault structure, i.e. springs that arise from fracture structures or fault lines.
  • Contact springs (contact spring), i.e. springs that appear on contact of tertiary (impermeable) rocks and quaternary (permeable) rocks.
  1. Judging from the flow, the springs are divided into:
  • Periodic spring, which is a spring that emits water only for a certain period.
  • Seasonal springs, namely springs that emit water during certain seasons. This spring is very dependent on rainfall.
  • Chronic springs, which are springs that release water throughout the year. This spring is not affected by rainfall.
  1. Judging from the temperature, the spring is divided into:
  • Cold springs, namely springs that have low-temperature water. Usually, these springs come from melting snow or ice.
  • Normal springs, namely springs where the water has a normal temperature and is almost the same as the temperature of the surrounding air.
  • Hot spring, which is a spring whose water has a temperature higher than the temperature around it.
  1. Based on the power of the cause, the springs are divided into:
  • Volcanic spring
  • Gap springs
  1. Judging from the type of material carrying water, the springs are divided into:
  • Water springs which appear from materials that pass water.
  • Springs which appear on the pass and water resistant rock.
  • Springs which appear from dissolution channels.
  • Springs which appear from rock cracks.
  • Springs on lava.

So, those are some types of springs viewed from various types of classifications. Hopefully, this information provided give you more insight on how the spring you used to visit forms.

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