Marine Pollution: Causes and its Prevention
The sea is an important part of life. For certain flora and fauna, the sea is the place for ecosystems to take place. Meanwhile, for humans, the sea can be a source of livelihood to make ends meet. The fishermen can benefit from catching fish in the sea. Others can benefit from opening a sea-themed tourist area. Because of the importance of the sea for many parties, all groups must consider efforts to overcome them in the event of sea pollution.
Like land, pollution can also occur at sea. Then, what are the factors that can cause sea pollution? Some of them are as follows:
1. Industrial Waste Disposal
Like rivers that are at risk of being polluted if they are used as a place to dispose of industrial waste, the sea too. Factory waste which is directly flowed into the sea will cause pollution of sea water. As we know, industrial wastes contain various harmful metals such as mercury, arsenic, lead, and so on.
These substances cannot be decomposed properly by natural marine microorganisms. This is what ultimately causes pollution in the sea. As a result, many members of the marine ecosystem will die. Even if someone can survive, they will bring the seeds of disease because their bodies have been contaminated with dangerous substances. If humans consume fish that contains mercury, this will certainly cause health problems to the consumables.
2. Offshore Mining
Marine pollution can also occur due to mining activities offshore. When offshore mining is carried out, there will be waste produced. Because it is in the middle of the sea, the only place to dump the waste is in the sea. Because it gets an oil spill, sea water conditions will change.
As we know, water and oil have different characters and cannot be mixed. In addition, oil waste also contains dangerous substances that are quite easy to kill the fish ecosystem in the sea. Not only fish, but coral reef ecosystems can also be damaged and destroyed when mining waste in the form of oil is dumped into the sea.
Eutrophication is a term that refers to an event where plants of a kind of algae live and multiply rapidly so that they dominate the waters. Because algae are plants that live and breathe from oxygen, oxygen depletion occurs in the ocean.
The depletion of oxygen levels ultimately makes other ecosystem members lose. From abnormal algae activity, finally, the impact that occurs is an ecosystem imbalance. In general, this problem is common in the estuary, which is a meeting of fresh water with sea water.
4. Garbage Stacks
Garbage does not only create pollution in the river area. Garbage that is carried by the river can lead to the sea. If every day the volume of waste that pollutes the sea increases, the life of marine life will be disrupted. The cause of marine pollution by rubbish is not only from a number of rubbish carried by river currents through the estuary.
Waste left on the beach can be carried away by the waves and increase the level of pollution in the sea. The impact will be lighter if the waste can be decomposed properly. However, some of the waste carried into the sea is inorganic waste which is difficult to decompose. As a result of the garbage, the sea water conditions become dirty and even smell.
5. Fish Exploitation
The exploitation of fish is one of the factors that can cause sea pollution problems. The fishermen who make large-scale fishing using explosives or other hazardous materials will make marine fish regenerate disrupted. Therefore, you should avoid exploiting fish in a way that is not justified just to reap profits. However, maintaining sustainability for the survival of members of the marine ecosystem is the most preferred.
After knowing the various things that can cause the problem of sea pollution, all parties certainly have to think of appropriate efforts to prevent and overcome this environmental pollution problem. To prevent contamination of seawater, there are several things that are feasible to apply. First, throw garbage in its place. This method should be applied by each individual.
When at home, avoid throwing household garbage into the river. In addition, when on the beach, try to dispose of leftover food waste, drinks, or other places that have been provided. That way, the impact of pollution by a garbage can be minimized.
In addition to individual efforts, there are efforts that should be implemented by the government. For example, by implementing sanctions for mining industry players who conduct waste disposal directly into the sea. Ships or industry players such as oil drilling that intentionally dump or spill oil into the sea can be sanctioned in accordance with regulations agreed to by the government.
In addition, all parties must also realize that maintaining marine life so that pollution does not occur is something important. To what extent has your knowledge and awareness of various aspects of marine pollution?