As time goes by, lots of natural disasters had occurred in Indonesia. Natural disasters do not only occur on land, but some also arise from the oceans. As an archipelago country, in fact, most of its territory is covered by the ocean, so it is reasonable if Indonesia often experiences natural disasters arising from the sea. One of the disasters from the underwater, for example, is underwater landslides.
As we know that landslides are the fall events of stacks or steep cliffs that are not too strong. This landslide is not only occur on land but also under the sea. This is referred to as an underwater landslide. This underwater landslide can occur in reliefs that are mountainous under the sea, such as Mountain Sea or continental shelf. The definition of underwater landslides is landslides in the sea that carry sediments from the continental shelf and into the deep sea.
Underwater landslides are natural events caused by various factors. The causes of underwater avalanches are related to the geological attributes and landslide material along with underwater environmental factors. The factors that cause submarine landslides include the following:
- There is a Weak Geological Layer
The first cause of landslides is that there is a weak geological layer. It’s because the strong geological layer will not easily experience landslides.
- Excessive Pressure Due to Excessive Accumulation of Sediment Deposition
Excessive pressure due to excessive accumulation of sediment deposition can also cause underwater landslides since it will suppress the geological field under the sea.
Earthquakes, especially those centered under the sea, can be a cause of underwater landslides. Moreover, if the earthquake has a large scale, this will easily cause the underwater landslides.
- Sea Wave
Sea waves apparently can also cause underwater landslides, especially if the waves formed have a large strength, the power can trigger underwater avalanches.
(Also read: 14 Reasons Why Sea Water Is Salty)
Storms that occur especially in the sea area can also originate underwater avalanches.
- Gas Hydrate Dissociation
The process of gas hydrate dissociation is one cause of underwater avalanches. Self-dissociation in chemical and biochemical processes is a process when ionic compounds (complex or salt) are separated into smaller particles, ions or radicals, but can be returned back as their original form.
- Groundwater Seepage and High Pore Water Pressure
Groundwater seepage, as well as high pore water pressure that occurs on the surface of the underwater relief, can cause underwater avalanches, be it large or small.
- Glacier Shards
Glacier or ice fragments is one of the potential cause of underwater avalanches. Moreover, if the glacier is large and has a large undersea part, it will surely cause underwater landslides.
- The growth of the Volcanic Islands
No doubt that under the sea can also be a place for the growth of volcanoes. The appearance of this mountain begins from under the sea as a conical island which then grows more and more so that it appears to the surface of the sea. This is one of the things that causes underwater landslides.
- Intersection Between Slopes
Intersections between slopes in the sea are, for example, the cause of underwater avalanches.
So, those are a number of things that can cause underwater landslides to happen. Hopefully, what we had conveyed is useful for all of us.