Coral Reefs are indeed beautiful. However, human actions lately have had such a dramatic effect on coral reef. It such a pity when human beings do some actions that basically severe the other creatures especially coral reef. We currently realized that the sea life have been threatened by human’s activities.
As the human’s activities increase, the global temperature has been rise, and around 33 percent of corals are in danger of extinction. Some researchers proved that over the last decades 80 percent of the corals have been declined.
Coral reefs are the home for a quarter of sea creatures. Their health is the key to a good sea’s ecosystem. Here are some main causes of coral reef destruction:
- Ways to Prevent Overfishing
- Types of Kelp
- Common Destruction of Coral Reefs
- Endangered Plants in The Ocean
A. Reef Bleaching
Reef bleaching happens when the water situation case the coral expel the internal microorganisms that give the corals their unique colors. Bleaching mostly happens due the numbers of factors, but currently the main factors is the rising of water temperature. As global warming hits the planet, ocean water temperatures are also rising.
Reef Bleaching become worse from time to time. If this is happen in a long term, coral reef might be facing the extinction. Specifically, researchers said that the worst bleaching area is in the North Pacific. In 2 decades, the bleaching phase has entering a worse new phase. This phenomenon has been effecting a various coral reef’s places such as: guam, Hawaii, Florida, and etc.
In Marshall island, this bleaching events happened unexpectedly. The Guardian has reported that they have witnessed the reefs has become white like they were covered by the snows. In south Pacific and Indian ocean there have been a rising temperature in its water. This condition later become a concern for the scientist on the future of coral reefs.
B. Poison Fishing
It is easy to catch the fishes using the cyanide and the other poisons but also this action may harm the most beautiful sea creatures in the world. The fishers sometimes using the most fastest way to get the fishes without thinking bout the long term effect that they will make in the future.
Cyanide fishing began in around 1960s in the Philippines.To supply the demand of aquarium trade, they start to caught the fish by using some poison and dynamite. Cyanide will make the fish feel unconcious but they basically still alive. However, this kind of poison will also effect.
One gram of Cyanide can cause the death of fishes around 6m big. And fishers mostly bring 10 liters of cyanide every time they are catching the fish. Can you imagine if there are more than 100 or even more than 100 fishers who try to catch the fishes in a day? A hundred or even a thousand meters big ocean has been damaged. A thousand of fishes died and also lost their home.
Sediments are a various size of mineral and organic origin and Erosion is the process of carrying away of sediment by water, gravity, wind, or ice (Smit & Smith 1998). The process of the moving of sediment from a state of solution in a fluid may called a sedimentation. Natural resources such as erosion of bedrock, soil, and decomposition of animals and plants will transport to the ocean. Natural sediment mobilization is a very important process in the maintanance of coastal habitats including lagoons, sea-grass beds, coral reefs, mangroves, and sand barriers. However, those activities which are carried out by man, often change the processes of erosion and sedimentation.
Construction and mining along the sea will create a big issue of silt and soil run off. Particles that entering the ocean can smother corals reefs and cover them from the sunlight and nutrients. Sadly, sunlight is one of the most important key of a growing reefs. A reef that cannot have any sunlight, they will turn into white and slowly dying.
Well, this reason might be one of the reason that you won’t be able to believe. In some research, the scientifics have been found that a cruise of ship’s anchor can cause a significant damage of a portion of coral reef. Coastal is the habitat for a lot of coral reefs in the ocean. But, unfortunately at the same time coastal also the place where the fisherman or the ships have to stay.
E. Careless tourism
A number or research and studies have been proffed that tourist and snorkelers have impacting the coral reefs growth. They cause damage by kicks, touching, pushing, stepping, dragging and standing on the coral. Studies said that inexperienced divers cause a bigger and greater damage than the experienced divers. And only a small percentage of divers are actually taking responsibility on the impacts that they have made. Some of the people suggest before they actually dive, they need to study more bout the coral reefs and the ocean creatures. Because the more people in it, the more damage they cam meke. Management strategies also needed to targeting the people who may dive to reduce the damage of the reefs.
Overfishing is a condition when people are catching more fish than the system can give which lead them to a declining of fish population, ecosystem, and this will also impacting on the human communities as well. Overfishing have threatened more than 55% of the world’s reef. We may know that this cause has been one of the most pervasive local threats for coral reefs. Countries in Southeast Asia are particularly threatened with nearly 95% reefs are in danger. In fact, many coral reefs in the world are heavily fished.
Reef fisheries are an important the home and source of foods for many ocean creatures worldwide. In many cases, these fisheries that are well managed may be a sustainable resource. However, due the increasing of fish demand and seafood products, many illegal fishing methods have been done.
G. Sand Mining
Mining is the process of extracting source from the earth. The source itself might be rock or mineral material. Coral reefs are the most productive sea creatures in the ocean. The common productivity may grow around 10m big per year. The effect of their productivity would be the sea ecosystem. If the coral was healthy, then the fisheries will increase. But, unfortunately human mining activity may damage the sea ecosystem. Coastal area tend to be the main activity of each mining activity. The increasing of the industrial activity will effect on the mining activity. We can get one example like reclamation.
Reclamation is one of the trending industrial activity among developing countries nowadays. Sadly, this reclamation have given a lot of negative effect on the coral reef in a long term time. According several studies, it may concluded that several millions cubic meters of sea sand haven been dredged.
H. Water Pollution
The drainage flow containing fertilizers and impurities that are wasted into coastal velocities encourages the growth of algae that will inhibit coral polyp growth, reducing intake of light and oxygen. Problem gets worse because the fish that normally eat algae are also caught.
I. Global Warming
Coral reefs are also threatened by global warming. Coral coral bleaching has increased over the last two decades, a period where the Earth has experienced some of the hottest temperatures in history. When sea temperatures rise very high, coral polyps lose their symbiotic algae inside, thus changing their color to white and eventually dying.
Global warming also causes extreme weather to be difficult to predict as tropical storms can result in enormous physical damage to coral reef ecosystems. Rising sea levels are also a serious threat to coral reefs and small islands.
J. Bad Ocean Management
The management of recreational areas in coastal areas that do not pay attention to the environment, such as boat rentals, fishing and diving equipment often cause coral damage. Throwing anchors to coral can destroy and break the coral reefs. The tourists who picked up, collected, kicked, and walked on the reefs contributed to the destruction of coral reefs.
K. The using of Fertilizer
The use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides on agricultural land also could be one of the cause of the damages of coral reefs in the oceans. Although farmland distances with shoreline are quite far away, chemical residues of artificial fertilizers and pesticides will eventually be wasted into the sea through rainwater that falls on farmland.
L. Collecting The Coral
Coral Reefs are indeed beautiful. Most of people will automatically amazed when they are diving and saw them. But, some careless divers and tourists will take the coral reefs in purpose as a merchandise. These people are one of the reason of the declining of cora reef’s number. The coral that has been taken away from the sea will have a ripple effect on the next future. A thousand fishes and many sea creatures may lost their home.
M. Mineral Wasting
Some of mining were produced in shore and this mining effecting the biota environment living. One of them is the coral reefs. Other petroleum and chemical products discharged near coastal waters will eventually reach the reefs. These pollutants will poison the coral polyps and other marine biota.
Throw garbage into the sea and beaches that can contaminate seawater. Chemicals contained in the waste, such as plastic waste can disrupt the marine ecosystem so that marine biota will be disturbed and akn damaged in the marine water ecosystem, so the marine biota like karoom reefs will have difficulty to develop. Inorganic waste into the river, can result in blocking the sunlight, thus inhibiting the process of photosynthesis of water plants and algae, which produce oxygen.
O. The Illegal Logging in Mangrove Forest
Mangrove forests and seagrass beds that a have function as filters that already damaged will cause sediment to reach coral reefs. Logging mangrove for firewood can change the area of mangrove forest for firewood into an open beach. By opening shrimp farms can damage the place of provision of natural shrimp.
Finally, there are all about how many causes of coral reef destruction which give many impacts to marine life’s stability. I hope after we know about all causes here, we must aware that we can keep the habitat of coral reef in marine ecosystems.