Judging from the origin, the biosphere comes from the word bios, which means life and sphere which means layers. A biosphere is a place where living things lived on the Earth’s layer, which is composed of ecosystems that operate. The biosphere consists of two main components, namely the biotic and abiotic components. So that it can be concluded that the notion of the biosphere is the levels of the organization of organisms that exist on Earth from simple memories to the very complex which are closely related or dependent on one another to form a layer of life or the biosphere.
Components of the Biosphere
The scope of the discussion of the biosphere is very wide so that it needs to be divided into several parts. The constituent components of the biosphere can be formed, thanks to the interactions between biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components are organisms that inhabit the biosphere, both macroscopic and microscopic. In its life, these organisms cannot be separated from the influence of abiotic factors or objects that do not live even including the distribution of this matter.
The following are the constituent components of the biosphere of abiotic factors:
- Temperature, each organism has its optimal temperature. It has been hundreds of thousands of years for organisms in a certain area to adapt to the temperature in that environment. Temperature is related to metabolic reactions in the body. Therefore it is now known as the division of vegetation.
- Light, light can directly affect the temperature of a region. Plant organisms really need enough light intensity to carry out photosynthesis. Plants that are producers in the food chain have an important role for all types of animals. Light also affects the movement of one animal, for example, some animals are known as nocturnal animals. During the day, when there is the intensity of sunlight, they tend to be passive or spend the afternoon to rest.
- Humidity, humidity is related to the content of water vapor in the air or in the soil. For example, worms really need high enough humidity to live. Worms prevent him from experiencing drought because it will cause death. In addition to various types of plants, humidity is very important for life such as cactus and moss.
- Rainfall, water is very important for the life process. Rainfall is related to the process of distributing water on Earth.
- Wind, wind affects the spread of water vapor on the Earth. In addition, some organisms need wind to help the process of its spread, for example, plants that need wind for pollination or seed dispersal.
- Water, one of the constituents of the body of organisms is water; therefore water is very important for life. The spread of organisms depends on the availability of water. Some really need water, for example aquatic organisms.
- Soil, soil becomes part of the Earth’s layer where all organisms live their lives, especially organisms that inhabit land ecosystems (terrestrial). Soil is also very influential on the spread of plants as producers.
- Topography, topography is related to the height and low surface of the Earth. Topography greatly affects temperature and humidity. The intensity of sunlight in high altitudes is certainly different from other regions. This difference in topography affects the spread of vegetation in the biosphere.
In terms of biotic components and in terms of the level of organization of organisms, the components of the biosphere are as follows:
- Protoplasm, a living component consisting of organelles and complex compounds in cells such as fat, protein, carbohydrates, etc.
- Cells, the smallest units that are functional and structural, consist of protoplasm, nucleus, and membrane.
- Network, a collection of cells that have the same shape and function.
- Organ, a collection of several networks that have different structures and functions that are integrated but still have certain functions.
- Organ systems, organs that work together harmoniously and functionally to form a certain system.
- Organisms, these organ systems then form a living individual.
- Species, organisms that have the same morphology and can produce the same offspring.
- Population, species that form the same group at a certain place and time.
- Communities, collections of different populations of species, live together in an area.
- Ecosystems, a complex environment in which interactions between organisms (biotic) and organisms (abiotic) occur form a system.
- Biome, a large-scale ecosystem that has the same environmental characteristics and has the same characteristics of the community, for example, tropical forest biome and desert biome.
In terms of the layers that exist on planet Earth, the biosphere cannot stand alone, like the following constituent components:
- Atmosphere, atmo means air and sphere means layer. Atmosphere is the layer of air that covers the Earth.
- Lithosphere, lithos means rocks and sphere means layers. Lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth’s skin.
- Hydrosphere, hydros means water and sphere means layers. Hydrosphere is the surface of the Earth which includes waters, such as lakes, rivers, seas, and water vapor which is in the air layer.
There are various forms of ecosystems that are formed from the results of various interactions that occur. Therefore, to know and understand the types of ecosystems, it is important to know the concept of biomes that are part of the biosphere component. Biomes that exist on a continent have the same environmental characteristics.
Broadly speaking, ecosystems can be distinguished in terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.
- Tropical forests, high rainfall areas and have trees that have an average height of 46 – 55 m.
- Desert, consisting of shrubs and also trees but still has vacant land next to it. For example, Sahara desert and desert in Australia.
- Savanna, has trees that are spread, open, and mixed with grasslands. For example, savanna in East Nusa Tenggara.
- Coniferous forests, the dominant trees that grow here are those from the needle-leaved group.
- Grassland, commonly found in areas of rainy climates and the factors that benefit its lane make it compete with woody plants.
- Tundra, an area that has few trees, is limited to ice-covered polar areas. The dominant vegetation is from various types of moss.
Aquatic ecosystems can be divided into three groups, namely freshwater ecosystems, sea water, and estuaries: (Also read: 15 Importance of Echinoderms In Oceans)
Based on the movement of the water, freshwater ecosystems can be divided into two types of waters: (Also read: 13 Effects of Ocean Acidification on Aquatic Organisms)
- Reminiscent waters or limber habitats. For example lakes, ponds, ponds, and swamps.
- Flowing waters or lotic habitat. For example, the river.
Sea Water Ecosystem
Sea water ecosystems have the greatest diversity of organisms on Earth. The sea is the most extensive area on Earth. The sea consists of five zones: (Also read: 13 Function Of Sea Waves You Must Know)
- Littoral zone, which is the area between tide and low tide. Organisms that can be found are from the benthic group.
- Neritic Zone, which is shallow water from a depth of 0 – 200 m which can still be penetrated by sunlight. Organisms that can be found such as plankton, nekton, and benthos.
- Bathyal Zone, an area with a depth of 200 – 1,800 m. Organisms found not as much as the previous zone. The dominant nekton group of this zone.
- Abyssal zone, an area with a depth of more than 1,800 – 6,000 m, only certain species can be found in this zone because this area is dark opaque.
- Hadal Zone, an area in the form of a sea trough with a depth of more than 6,000 m.
Eustaria is a coastal aquatic ecosystem that is still influenced by tides. For example, mangrove vegetation.
Biosphere itself is special. Only in the biosphere, life do exist. You should know that everything happens in our Earth is magical and amazing.