In everyday life, we need water. Water is one of the natural resources that need to be preserved and of course it is kept clean so that it is not polluted. There are terms such as groundwater, surface water, biopori soil, and so on. And on this occasion we will discuss the benefits of surface water.
What is surface water? Surface water is water that is above the ground that can be seen by our eyes. In general, surface water is divided into 2 types, namely land and sea waters. Inland waters are surface water on land, for example in lakes, rivers, and swamps. Whereas sea waters are surface waters that are in the vast ocean, for example, water that is in the ocean. As mentioned above, surface water is water that is above the surface of the ground that can be seen by the eye, for example river water, lake water, water in swamps, and seawater. Then what are the benefits? The following are the benefits of surface water:
- For Daily Needs
Surface water can be used for everyday life as well as for cooking, washing, bathing, and drinking. The level of water consumption in everyday life is very high so that as much as possible the community can optimize the use of clean water in everyday life because if used for things that are not important, of course, it will be very detrimental.
- Power Plant
The benefit of the lake is that it can be used to drive turbines as power plants. This needs to be applied in areas that have lakes with constant water flow and must be applied in areas that have not yet felt electricity. Not only that, this water turbine power plant also needs to be applied in other regions with the aim of saving electricity usage from the government and of course can reduce monthly expenditure.
- For Irrigation and Recreation
Surface water in rivers or lakes can be used for irrigation for farmers who need it, especially during the long dry season. Surface water in the river can also be used as a recreational facility such as swimming. This is certainly a positive value for those who live in areas near the sea or rivers that have clear water because they can also be used as recreational facilities as well as for agriculture.
- Fish Cultivation
Surface water in the lake can be used for aquaculture which needs to be considered properly so that it can utilize surface water as much as possible and benefit the surrounding environment because fish farming will certainly add to the livelihood of those in the area close to the lake.
- As a Transportation Media
Surface water in rivers or seas can be used as a medium for sea transportation for boats or fishing boats when looking for fish in the sea; not only for fishermen to find fish, but also for the transportation of trading ships and passenger ships.
- Sports Venues
Surface water can be used as a place for water sports such as surfing, diving, snorkeling, banana boating, water boarding, water sky, jet sky, and so on. Of course this is in addition to releasing stress but can also make your body healthy and also add to the experience for those of you who are new to water sports.
Types of Surface Water
As mentioned above, surface water is divided into 2 types, namely land and sea waters. Here is a more detailed explanation.
- Inland Water
Land waters are surface water that is above the land whereas inland waters are divided into 3 types, namely rivers, lakes, and swamps.
- Rivers – Rivers referred to this article are land that is lower than the area around it which is where water flows from upstream to estuary. The division of the river is divided into 2 types, namely rivers based on their water sources and rivers based on the volume of water. Based on the water source, the river is divided into rain rivers, glacier rivers, and mixed rivers, while rivers based on the volume of water are divided into permanent rivers and periodic rivers.
- Lakes – Lakes are sunken land filled with water and generally have a large enough area. The lake is divided into 4 types, namely tectonic lakes, volcanic lakes, tectovulic lakes, and artificial lakes.
- Swamp – Swamp is a lowland that is flooded by water which is generally found in lowland and coastal areas. So from that there are swamp areas which are affected by the tides which then swamp areas are called tidal areas.
Sea water is surface water in the ocean which based on the depth, the sea waters are divided into 4 sea zones, namely the littoral zone, neritic zone, batial zone, and abyssal zone. The littoral zone is a zone near the coast of the sea that lies between the tide and tide lines and a depth of 0 meters. The neritic zone is a sea located at a depth of 0 – 200 m with characteristics of sunlight that can penetrate to the sea floor. The batial zone is the sea which is at a depth of 200 – 1,000 m which is a border zone between land and waters with the characteristic that sunlight cannot penetrate. The abyssal zone is the sea which is in the depth of more than 1,000 m and even up to 6,000 m with the characteristic that the water temperature is very low.
Now we will discuss the characteristics of surface water. Its characteristics are:
- The water is clean but there is a little turbid and cloudy which is usually used for irrigation or as a power plant
- Can be used as a container for the development of aquatic animals or aquatic plants such as algae
- When exposed to sunlight, the sun’s rays can penetrate to a certain depth